作者: INGE BRETHERTON / 37094次阅读 时间: 2011年4月24日
来源: Developmental Psychology (1992), 28, 759-775. 标签: Ainsworth AINSWORTH attachment Attachment ATTACHMENT Bowlby BOWLBY
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Reference: Developmental Psychology (1992), 28, 759-775.心理学空间(ZZo0B&LR
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*S4IE-b:{%@8?.g0Attachment theory is the joint work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth &
(v9I mX`{ V3D)}'Y0Bowlby, 1991 ). Drawing on concepts from ethology, cybernetics, information processing,心理学空间Q7a!M Q(o/s.yJ8K%r
developmental psychology, and psychoanalysts, John Bowlby formulated the basic tenets of心理学空间j6k:JvnD
the theory. He thereby revolutionized our thinking about a child’s tie to the mother and its心理学空间`E9[P0Z(OWPZ1}
disruption through separation, deprivation, and bereavement. Mary Ainsworth’s innovative心理学空间%i%ngE$US o @
methodology not only made it possible to test some of Bowlby’s ideas empirically hut also
'hA q S;v&F0helped expand the theory itself and is responsible for some of the new directions it is now
m4g _5ZfM:n h0taking. Ainsworth contributed the concept of the attachment figure as a secure base from
.N,g.v `N[%d5t6a0which an infant can explore the world. In addition, she formulated the concept of maternal
N[?Ox]q0sensitivity to infant signals and its role in the development of infant-mother attachment

wDrG5l.~,X0The ideas now guiding attachment theory have a long developmental history. Although
fDwC eI;y0Bowlby and Ainsworth worked independently of each other during their early careers, both心理学空间s9@K{9kj$t
were influenced by Freud and other psychoanalytic thinkers-directly in Bowlby’s case,
q^w_&gGko2n K0indirectly in Ainsworth’s. In this chapter, I document the origins of ideas that later became
#j"mFB6j"b#k]0central to attachment theory. I then discuss the subsequent period of theory building and
l/M2uz cf0consolidation. Finally, I review some of the new directions in which the theory is currently心理学空间6b!BNeEX#}\)q
developing and speculate on its future potential In taking this retrospective developmental
a7_&h/AG"T0approach to the origins of attachment theory, I am reminded of Freud’s (1920/1955) remark:
I would like to thank Mary Ainsworth and Ursula Bowlby for helpful input on a draft of this article. I am also
,~&Qnr%@ i"K"e w0grateful for insightful comments by three very knowledgeable reviewers.
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Reference: Developmental Psychology (1992), 28, 759-775. Reprinted in from R. Parke, P. Ornstein, J.
Z E j G;VEn0Reiser, & C. Zahn-Waxler (Eds.) (1994). A century of developmental psychology. (Chapter 15, pp. 431-471).
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p#KsjBB.o$m!\%_ f0So long as we trace the development from its final outcome backwards, the chain of events
D,cd5d;?P!f0appears continuous, and we feel we have gained an insight which is completely satisfactory
Pa c)klB)P^|0or even exhaustive. But if we proceed in the reverse way, if we start from the premises心理学空间Fp)nRNR@4v W2]
inferred from the analysis and try to follow these up to the final results, then we no longer
2l _Cd/Q q#u1[ D0get the impression of an inevitable sequence of events which could not have otherwise been
ZV3GPj B9q0determined. (p. 167)心理学空间0F3c Id![X cx4M

]3\ \edB4aMg0In elucidating how each idea and methodological advance became a stepping stone for the
Wj Ctqwm WLw0next, my retrospective account of the origins of attachment theory makes the process of theory
o8V(D.B!y']x0building seem planful and orderly. No doubt this was the case to some extent, but it may often not
)e+i7Wc%Y&Ze[/YHu0have seemed so to the protagonists at the time.
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ORIGINS心理学空间|.[6Y.?*P M
John Bowlby
&M/WG;J:EB0After graduating from the University of Cambridge in 1928, where he received rigorous
!}"S(MJ,U*rp\7g%u0scientific training and some instruction in what is now called developmental psychology, Bowlby心理学空间8|`-cJlL%j'@o)N4z
performed volunteer work at a school for maladjusted children while reconsidering his career心理学空间vd*L't#SFUID,B
goals. His experiences with two children at the school set his professional life on course. One was
H'?VbY1x0a very isolated, remote, affectionless teenager who had been expelled from his previous school for
3ufV1AKm3Gz0theft and had had no stable mother figure. The second child was an anxious boy of 7 or 8 who
3R5J1t\M O,Q8q0trailed Bowlby around and who was known as his shadow (Ainsworth, 1974). Persuaded by this心理学空间"gA,]w4N!P j'Y
experience of the effects of early family relationships on personality development, Bowlby心理学空间^-l)bB5M{]
decided to embark on a career as a child psychiatrist (Senn, 1977h).心理学空间.^(t4J%A[\

$t?!p:A!K"f2`2D0Concurrently with his studies in medicine and psychiatry, Bowlby undertook training at the心理学空间x_?i.t*Up p
British Psychoanalytic Institute. During this period Melanie Klein was a major influence there (the
,qw N1|`0institute had three groups: Group A sided with Freud, Group B sided with Klein, and the Middle心理学空间{P7P#Zy(MS
Group sided with neither). Bowlby was exposed to Kleinian (Klein, 1932) ideas through his
fNF%p7lD`B0training analyst, Joan Riviere, a close associate of Klein, and eventually through supervision by
Sl,il G8s!|0Melanie Klein herself. Although he acknowledges Riviere and Klein for grounding him in the心理学空间%IoJb#Bl2b
心理学空间2J)B%l(fzg H pJJq

Go3gj(B0object-relations approach to psychoanalysis, with its emphasis on early relationships and the
Wi@;p|r,wJ0pathogenic potential of loss (Bowlby, 1969, p. xvii), he had grave reservations about aspects of
2z es/|eeT0the Kleinian approach to child psychoanalysis. Klein held that children’s emotional problems are心理学空间 s+_MgOy-U5BF
almost entirely due to fantasies generated from internal conflict between aggressive and libidinal
{#} |t2ZWT|\:y0drives, rather than to events in the external world, She hence forbade Bowlby to talk to the心理学空间H$GZt gs
mother of a 3-year-old whom he analyzed under her supervision (Bowlby, 1987). This was
o3tD,Z+X({$k;X(x0anathema to Bowlby who, in the course of his postgraduate training with two psychoanalytically心理学空间3g Pm[roK
trained social workers at the London Child Guidance Clinic, had come to believe that actual心理学空间H%{ DX#V@[
family experiences were a much more important, if not the basic, cause of emotional disturbance.心理学空间5hw'e/|? c

Q+Bvdj&J*j0Bowlby’s plan to counter Klein’s ideas through research is manifest in an early theoretical
N&c'M0jq!K8z0paper (1940) in which he proposed that, like nurserymen, psychoanalysts should study the nature
\N*z6k B1vNI K#I0of the organism, the properties of the soil, and their interaction (p. 23). He goes on to suggest心理学空间$V \3W#FT;l K;s
that, for mothers with parenting difficulties,
a weekly interview in which their problems are approached analytically and traced hack to
BcTY;k#i*W0childhood has sometimes been remarkably effective. Having once been helped to recognize心理学空间5u9cy @0g&O6| Pv*C
and recapture the feelings which she herself had as a child and to find that they are accepted心理学空间} N0Gg T2N
tolerantly and understandingly, a mother will become increasingly sympathetic and tolerant
^4^j;ScD-a+uL0toward the same things in her child. (Bowlby, 1940, p. 23)心理学空间LFW G'NV])OJ
心理学空间#Ui6zo }#_i
These quotations reveal Bowlby’s early theoretical and clinical interest in the intergenerational
AL@ \$S0transmission of attachment relations and in the possibility of helping children by helping parents.心理学空间g(A G8o?VvE
Psychoanalytic object-relations theories later proposed by Fairbain (1952) and Winnicott (1965)
`+j8|Q#f0were congenial to Bowlby, hut his thinking had developed independently of them.心理学空间B"kmd O7UE'D\

([!q\_1Eo0Bowlby’s first empirical study, based on case notes from the London Child Guidance Clinic,心理学空间\([ y,R+Uk1t%t!A
dates from this period. Like the boy at the school for maladjusted children, many of the clinic
y h {CSh F"x0patients were affectionless and prone to stealing. Through detailed examination of 44 cases,心理学空间BHp{A)B5FWn
Bowlby was able to link their symptoms to histories of maternal deprivation and separation.
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Although World War II led to an interruption in Bowlby’s budding career as a practicing
%bhL-h2O7H I0child psychiatrist, it laid further groundwork for his career as a researcher. His assignment was to
z+V O"bW ^,^ _u0collaborate on officer selection procedures with a group of distinguished colleagues from the
0l(CXN`|~@0Tavistock Clinic in London, an experience that gave Bowlby a level of methodological and心理学空间@,T+t&em;t6H3F
心理学空间/[ I_z(r9{Gx

H*N1p@ _#l0statistical expertise then unusual for a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. This training is obvious in
2m+evx0Z'k d0the revision of his paper, “Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves: Their Characters and Home Lives”
#~*m,I"||.B4f Uj0(Bowlby, 1944), which includes statistical tests as well as detailed case histories.心理学空间y3o5vm @*LS^D]

N.](H8K|7iy0At the end of World War II, Bowlby was invited to become head of the Children’s心理学空间 qe(K7H:~;W A C
Department at the Tavistock Clinic. In line with his earlier ideas on the importance of family
;lb s e~\Ly O0relationships in child therapy, he promptly renamed it the Department for Children and Parents.
p(Y9Nzo&K0Indeed, in what is credited as the first published paper in family therapy, Bowlby (1949) describes
nvL3v2y*l2u~0how he was often able to achieve clinical breakthroughs by interviewing parents about their
)w#M"W.Ygx#bU5d0childhood experiences in the presence of their troubled children.
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R+tM8~"`0To Bowlby’s chagrin, however, much of the clinical work in the department was done by心理学空间O`/l~mC'J/~.m ?
people with a Kleinian orientation, who, he says, regarded his emphasis on actual family
mXz7mE0@!h3S0interaction patterns as not particularly relevant. He therefore decided to found his own research心理学空间'y$C`:~F4x
unit whose efforts were focused on mother-child separation. Because separation is a clear-cut and心理学空间*a0|!l y/P'_(u_h5?-GYc
undeniable event, its effects on the child and the parent- child relationship were easier to
0`:m8[*^lA"~&R0document than more subtle influences of parental and familial interaction.心理学空间r"q6c2f(A7Y H|S

r&R:q1o$_;z K|5A0Mary Ainsworth
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Mary Ainsworth (nee Salter), 6 years younger than Bowlby, finished graduate study at the
)JZ s le+yra0University of Toronto just before World War II. courses with William Blatz had introduced her心理学空间v{0[ipQ8P
to security theory (Blatz, 1940), which both reformulated and challenged Freudian ideas, though
)o&z1^l$i}5[8O0Blatz chose not to recognize his debt to Freud because of the anti-Freudian climate that pervaded
x n*_\:q0the University of Toronto at that time (Ainsworth, 1983; Blatz, 1966).
One of the major tenets of security theory is that infants and young children need to develop心理学空间X*E;Z@ d7{i
a secure dependence on parents before launching out into unfamiliar situations. In her dissertation,心理学空间 {2s LVb.uS~#h
entitled “An Evaluation of Adjustment Based Upon the Concept of Security,” Mary Salter
q!he d$h&u nM5J%\1U0(1940) states it this way:心理学空间j0A4A1R\7m.Z*]!n6y
心理学空间#k yeX$U%v
Familial security in the early stages is of a dependent type and forms a basis from which
3mI3KSt7j0the individual can work out gradually, forming new skills and interests in other fields.心理学空间w0~,G%Km
Where familial security is lacking, the individual is handicapped by the lack o~ what
!}\[Ao0might be called a secure base italics added from which to work. (p. 45)
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Interestingly, Mary Salter’s dissertation research included an analysis of students’ autobiographical
Fcu^x0y0narratives in support of the validity of her paper-and-pencil self-report scales of familial and
&T~Y@d:pp1z0extrafamilial security, foreshadowing her later penchant for narrative methods of data collection.心理学空间3d,G{2D*U+^G p
Indeed, few researchers realize the enormous experience in instrument development and diagnostics
3^ K4Go!Z _ MQQ2dn0she brought to attachment research.心理学空间(\%y*V ?2Y
心理学空间f1}4\ Nk6s h&P
Like Bowlby’s, Mary Salter’s professional career was shaped by her duties as a military
.`;~ Z D-yG{G0officer during World War 11 (in the Canadian Women’s Army corps). After the war, as a faculty
sk}8cq0member at the University of Toronto, she set out to deepen her clinical skills in response to the
L:O/hv.x(Pi!T0request to teach courses in personality assessment. To prepare herself for this task, she signed up
~aZ.eQGE/J0H!T0for workshops by Bruno Klopfer, a noted expert in the interpretation of the Rorschach test. This心理学空间NG;d1?Z4U u
experience led to a coauthored book on the Rorschach technique (Klopfer, Ainsworth, Klopfer,
-[a&T"V&H`S0& Holt, 1954), which is still in print.心理学空间I1Fpl+b&}9Z[

,RUH8@am0In 1950, Mary Salter married Leonard Ainsworth and accompanied him to London, where
'j;xZ;EkD0he completed his doctoral studies. Someone there drew her attention to a job advertisement in the心理学空间1_q9XYo2H
London Times that happened to involve research, under the direction of John Bowlby, into the
/W?)AC-vV'u#n0effect on personality development of separation from the mother in early childhood. As Mary心理学空间g$`&f4z"LQ*_6A`
Ainsworth acknowledges, joining Bowlby’s research unit reset the whole direction of her心理学空间C v C0iN0x,ey~]%W
professional career, though neither Bowlby nor Ainsworth realized this at the time.心理学空间W9G G2Cm6@9^

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