有关生命第一年的基本概念(温尼科特 1896-1971)词汇表
作者: 丽雅·克莱因 博士 / 3542次阅读 时间: 2023年4月16日
来源: 张沛超 译 标签: 温尼科特
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网Basic concepts concerning the first year of life (D.W. Winnicott 1896-1971) - glossary心理学空间b S G3Z#m4m&s:q

有关生命第一年的基本概念(温尼科特 1896-1971)词汇表

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丽雅·克莱因 博士(以色列)


张沛超 博士 译


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s1\X!gj u0Primary maternal preoccupation- this refers to the mental ability of the mother to prepare herself to the special situation of being totally devoted to the infant at the first time after birth. It is parallel to the physical ability to be pregnant and give birth. This "illness" is starting at the ending part of pregnancy, some weeks before infant is born, and continuing for several weeks later. The mother is extremely mentally occupied with the new born and then identifies and totally devoted to him, as long as the stage of total dependency. So she is one with her baby. He needs it for his healthy development. This is the ideal mother. He calls it "illness" because it is like a kind of overvalued idea a psychotic.      心理学空间3~L Y7\ C2c,}I

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原初母性贯注: 指母亲在第一时间将自己调整至完全奉献于初生儿的心理能力,这种能力是与可以怀孕和分娩的身体能力是平行的。这种“疾病”起始于婴儿临产前几周的孕期末期,并且持续到分娩几周后。只要婴儿仍然处于完全依赖期,母亲就极大程度地贯注于新生儿,并全心全意与之认同。所以健康的母亲和婴儿是一个整体,婴儿从中才能健康发育。之所以称之为“疾病”,是因为这有点像精神病性的“先占观念”。


%km}z1c4P'NG$bz]0Ideal mother- this is the mother which is needed for the new born at his first weeks of life. She identifies with the baby, she is totally devoted to him, and she is tuned to her baby, fully attentive, and supplies all his needs even by ignoring her own. By this she provides him with the experience of omnipotence which is required for his healthy development.  心理学空间'B%h)LyBA

1M7]-hdQ SdE8bu^!a0理想的母亲:这是指初生儿在生命中的前几周所需要的母亲。她与婴儿认同,全心全意地奉献,调整自己以适应婴儿,忘我地满足他所有的需求。通过这些她让婴儿拥有全能的体验,这对于健康发展是很重要的。心理学空间Y:vX}D ^(S_

Bi'B%Qc-U;E r0Good enough mother- is the mother of the second stage, of the relative dependence. It relates to the mother's adaptation to her infant's needs which are changing slowly .she can now, be sensitive enough to know when and how much her


I*FuCt+ca1c dN0infant can tolerate failure and frustration. This strengthens his ability to deal with reality, to acquire the experience of his abilities and strength.    心理学空间%}.]:yx3i5w:}!bJ

!L4r5o Z+O"D6j&y.M0足够好的母亲:这是指第二阶段——相对依赖阶段的母亲。这里指母亲对她的孩子逐渐变化的需求的适应。现在她可以足够的敏锐,以指导他的孩子何时、以何种方式忍受失落和挫折。这锻炼了他应对现实的能力,获得了体验自己能力的机会。心理学空间f.Lz H!t _Gg3H


Total dependency- The first weeks of life, there is no distinction between baby-mother. The human-baby is totally vulnerable and totally dependent on an object to provide his needs for existing. They are one. He is totally dependent on her for his survival.  W. claims: there is no such thing as an infant; there is an infant and a mother. When his needs are perfectly met, he acquires the feeling of omnipotence which is needed for his development.  心理学空间oo)^XC

cQ O/?iC$w0完全依赖:生命第一周,母亲和婴儿之间全然不分。婴儿是如此的脆弱,以至于全然依赖他的客体提供生存的需求,他们成了一体。为了生存他必须全然依赖母亲。温尼科特说:没有婴儿这回事,只有母婴的联合体。如果他的需求被完美地满足,就会获得对于健康发展十分很必要的全能体验。

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)od`R+c5B0Relative Dependency- is the second stage of development, when the infant can tolerate failure and frustration. His needs are fulfilled but not always immediately which is building his relations with reality. It brings up healthy development, when it is occurring with mother's sensitivity to his ability.心理学空间a lWztB t

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;O8To9]9c"N Cf)R0Primary aggression- this is the way infant's behavior understood by the mother, sometimes she feels he is aggressive towards her and causing her physical pain (by his little hands- scratch her, legs - kick her, or his gums- pressing too strong on her nipples when sucking), he has no intention to hurt anyone, it is a behavior which by the reaction to it . will get its meaning and develop. Aggression by Winnicott . is a reaction to an outside stimulation.

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原初攻击性:母亲用原初攻击性以理解婴儿的行为。有时她感觉婴儿对她的攻击性,并给她带来身体上的疼痛(婴儿用他的小手抓母亲,用他的小腿踢她,当吮吸乳汁的时候用力地咬乳头),但他并无意伤害任何人,通过对这一举动的回应,该行为就能获得意义并发展。温尼科特认为攻击性是对外在刺激的反应。心理学空间+[K*W*tj ^0KD N

[|;sx`0B0Baby's ruthlessness ."primitive ruthless self" this occurs before the infant is able to feel concern. The concerned self, which means the ability to feel concern-, depends for its development on the ruthless self being allowed to be expressed. It is occurring at the time of total dependency.  The mother, who survives this ruthlessness, enables the development of the concern for the object. When not allowed, it remains splitted and later on the person is aggressive and is not aware of it.心理学空间:liV'D3A+f^




Holding- it is physical and mentally functioning of the mother. She holds the baby in her arms, and holds him in her mind. "The infant is held by the mother and only understands love that is expressed in physical terms, by live human holding. Only with good enough holding . the infant develops the capacity to integrate experience and develop a sense of I AM. The mother's holding function is a crucial factor in the baby health development.

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抱持:母亲的身心功能。她用臂膀抱住婴儿,同时在内心里也抱住婴儿。婴儿被母亲拥抱,只能理解用身体语言表达的爱。只有被足够好的抱持,婴儿才能发展整合经验的能力,和一种“我存在”的感觉。母亲的抱持功能是婴儿健康发展的关键因素。心理学空间&E,WfL7d n'_-z

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Mirror role of mother-it is a crucial role. The infant is dependent on his mother's facial responses when he looks into her face in order to establish his sense of self. When he sees himself in his mother's eyes he starts to have knowledge of himself. W says:"When I look I am seen, so I exist”. This silent communication establishes and enriches the sense of feeling real. If the mother is busy with herself, her moods, maybe depression, frustrations, she do not reflect the baby, and he feels overcome by this expression and absorbed in it. It causes a failure in the building of a solid personality.

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d+sU$qK/B5z0Environment- the environment is responsible for the healthy development of the infant. The first environment is the mother. Than father joins and some relatives and other caretakers. The environment can facilitate the potential (genetics, and heredity) that the infant is bearing, or can damage it. The importance of the environment is copied to the therapeutic setting. The analyst is reliable, steady, and preoccupied with his patient. His love is expressed by attunement to the patient's presence, listening with respect,Warmth and empathy. He is not judging or criticizing. He accepts his patient as he is. Just trying to understand emphatically what is pushing the patient from the inner world. He survives the patient's aggression towards him.心理学空间/suhpo


环境:环境对婴儿的健康发展负责。最初的环境就是母亲,随后是父亲和其他的亲属或其他的抚养者参与。环境可以促使或干扰潜能(遗传的和血统的)的表达。环境的重要性在治疗情境中再现。分析师是可信赖的、稳定的且贯注于他的病人的。他的爱表现在对病人临在的调和,充满尊重、温暖和共情地聆听,而不会评价或指责。他按照病人本来的样子接受他,所做的仅仅是共情地理解病人的内心的动机,在病人对他的攻击之下存活下来。心理学空间!] bcA#D!^.S |L

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Fear of breakdown This is one of the outcomes of an environment that had failed to hold the infant of the very early stages. There was an impingement from the environment, it was a shock and a trauma to the infant's psyche because the infant was not ready to receive it and could not therefore think about it, that is, gather it as an experience and integrate it. It happened, but it was not experienced in the sense of being processed. It remained in the mind as a foreign body, but influences the future life. It stays as kind of an unreasonable anxiety, undefined, shadowy uneasiness in life. It is a fear of something that already happened.


%V-Uz2|_0W stresses that when this fear of breakdown comes out in the course of therapy, it means that the patient is repeating now the historic trauma, but now there is the hope that the failure will turn out as working through and reparation.

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对崩解的恐惧:这是一种当环境未能在极早期抱持好婴儿的后果。环境的冲击对婴儿的内心是个震动或创伤,因为婴儿还没有准备好接受它,甚至不能想到它,不能将之视为经验而集中并整合。它发生了,但是却没有被处理而被体验到。在婴儿的心里仍然是一个侵入的异化体,但是这将影响他的未来。它以某种无法理解、无法界定的焦虑存在,成为生活中令人不安的阴影,随时担心某些不好的事情已经发生了的恐惧。心理学空间3?h6k3RA(_y4N gbH

W} q8P r ] G0温尼科特强调了如果治疗中出现了对崩解的恐惧,这意味着病人此刻正重复着他旧有的创伤,而正希望过往的失败将会被修通和修复。

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Continuity of being .this may be described as a state or feeling that comes about as a result of the infant's subjective experience of being merged with a good enough mother. W also describes this sense of "being" as the "centre of gravity" which has to occur in the very early weeks of the infant's state of absolute dependence and is only possible if the mother is in a state of primary maternal preoccupation. The ability to "be" derives from the experience of a holding environment at the very start. The continuity of being is the precursor of integration.  心理学空间l2iI ` J

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Impingement- when everything is going well, the infant is not aware of the world which surrounds him. He is like the center of the world, which is one with him, and all his needs are perfectly supplied, very much like in the womb. Occasionally, he sends part of his body and touches the surrounding. It feels good. It is an occasional gesture. When this communication has a good reaction he may repeat it. This is how communication starts. But when the environment-mother is not well adapted to the baby, she is approaching him in a way that do not fit him, it can be the voice . too loud, too much light, the food not when he is hungry,  suddenly  moving him to play when he is in the mood to sleep. All this are felt as an impingement to his quiet world. In this way the continuity of being is interrupted. It is a trauma. As he is so helpless to resist it, he is forced to react. When this happens too many times . he cannot develop his real self freely; he yields to it and become submissive with a false self.心理学空间2R \&AH1u


侵入:当一切顺利进行,婴儿就不会感觉到周遭环境的存在。他感觉自己是世界的中心,世界和他是一体,所有的需求都被完美地满足,这非常像在子宫内的生活。偶尔他用自己的肢体触碰周围的环境,感觉不错,这是常见的举动。当交流获得了正面的回应,他就会重复这个举动,这就是交流的开始。但是如果环境-母亲未能良好地回应婴儿,或是不恰当的方式对待他,可能是太大的声音,太多的亮光,在他不饿的时候喂食,当他想要睡觉时突然带他去游戏,所有这些都是对他安宁的内心世界的侵入。这样一来存在的连续性就被打破,这就是一个创伤。当他无望抵抗时就不得不回应。如果这些发生了很多次,那么心理学空间W0r I&\Y


他将不能自由发展他的真实自体,结果是他以一个虚假自体的方式对环境的侵入投降。心理学空间O(s+U8hh~M6Q otu

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Anxiety .trauma at the beginning of life relates to the threat of annihilation, he refers to it as "primitive agonies" or "unthinkable anxieties" these are experienced as:


Going to pieces; falling forever; having no relation to the body; having no orientation; complete isolation because there are no means of communication;心理学空间A n%TOM4^

Sd4i'G|w x+`0These are the outcome of impingements, which disrupted the going on being and cause fragmentation in the personality or prevent the normal development to integration.

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/G i-`8n+l_v~0c0He speaks of unthinkable anxieties because he refers to the infant before speech is achieved; there is not any ability to contain the anxiety or to have any defense against it. It becomes a basic character in the personality structure.  

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H(h` Nf {l2dd0焦虑: 生命最初的创伤与对被毁灭的威胁相关,温尼科特称之为:“原始的痛苦”或“难以设想的焦虑”,这些被体验为:变成碎片;持续地坠落;与身体脱节;失去定向感;因为没有任何交流而感觉到完全的隔绝。




SswlK/d ~T0温尼科特称之为“无法设想的焦虑”是因为这些发生在婴儿获得言语能力之前;没有容纳这些焦虑的可能,也没有办法对之防御,该焦虑就变成了人格结构的基本特征。心理学空间&oK%m'_r.C

t)Kmv$|#_0Transitional object and the journey to symbolism .it is an object that the infant believes he created, and it is in his possession. It looks, smells, feels like something that remind him of his mother (a piece of cloth, soft blanket, a teddy bear soft and fluffy, a tune, a finger in his mouth). It comforts him   when the mother is not there. Especially when he is going to sleep and some anxieties arise. At the beginning the infant whose needs are perfectly fulfilled, believes that he created the breast (which feeds him) or the mother.  This illusion is necessary for his development. Then, at the time of relative dependence, one of the mother's functions is to disillusion him. So he starts to perceive what is real and objective. He starts to differentiate between Me and Not me. He starts to perceive the other, and relationship is beginning to establish. He is on the way to be able to symbolize. (When one object stands for another) It occurs between 4 to 12 months.  心理学空间%B,u0c Y$y6i


过渡性客体和通往象征之途: 婴儿认为是自己创造了过渡性客体并占有它。过渡性客体看起来、或闻起来,会使他回想起他的母亲。(比如一片织物、软毛毯、毛茸茸的泰迪熊、一段音符、或是口中的手指)过渡性客体在母亲不在的时候安慰着孩子,尤其是当他将要入睡或感觉到焦虑的时候。最初婴儿的需求需要被完美地满足,这使他相信是他创造了哺育他的乳房或母亲。这种幻觉对于发展是必须的。然后,在相对依赖期,母亲的功能之一就是去除这种幻觉,这使他开始感知真实和客观,他开始将“我”和“非我”区分开来,他开始感知到他人的存在,与他人的关系在此时开始建立。他开始迈向象征世界(其中一个客体可以用来代表另一个客体),这发生在第4到第12个月。心理学空间 zx:yo]k4Thz%x

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From object relating to object usage- this subject relates to the question of aggression. W claims that aggression has a very important role in the development of the baby, from being one with his mother to separation and integration. The concepts he is using are confusing because of their meaning in everyday language. The baby at the beginning is aggressive towards the object and there are destructive phantasies (Melanie Klein) which are aroused as a result of frustration. When the object can survive the aggressive attacks and destruction, the baby feels that there is an object he can rely on, so he refers his love to him. Now he can "use" the object, not meaning to exploit him, but meaning that he can communicate with him without fearing his damage. He can now bear the two opposite emotions . love and hate living together, one beside the other.心理学空间1f `ue3``I



Unintegration; disintegration; integration-at the beginning of life there is the body which carries the inheritance and the potential of bodily and psychic (cognitive, intellectually, mentally) development. At the beginning there is unintegration and a potential for integration. The mind is absorbing all the experiences, not yet distinguished which one comes from the inside (like hunger which is perceived as pain all over the body) which one from the outside (too much light, too much noise...)Giving it some approval when it is good and denial when it is unpleasant. Yet, everything is fragmented. When there is continuity of being, which depends on the心理学空间'Ndy#Wq/c*[|~

8tFa'M0nCW-V'U0mother's being there as an ideal or good enough, the baby slowly integrates all the experiences to a whole and one. He starts to differentiate between Me and not Me.  


S qR8E;EzD;Q!g0Disintegration is a result of a failure. When there are serious and nonstop impingements, the unthinkable anxiety arises, the continuity of being is disrupted and what already had been achieved is braking, splitted and chaos appears. This early disintegration can come out in later years as personality disturbances or as schizophrenia.心理学空间!RP-f}g E,`

9|i La,Q0未整合;失整合;整合:在生命的一开始躯体承载着遗传的潜能——躯体的和心理的(认知的、理性的、心智的)发展潜能。最初是一种未整合的状态,并且具有整合的潜力。心灵吸收着所有的经验:内在的体验(饥饿被感知为周身的疼痛)和外在的体验(太多的亮光或太多的噪音)是未区分的。当这些体验是正面的时候就被欢迎,当这些体验是不适的时候就被否认。然而,一切都是片段化的。当母亲足够真实足够好地与婴儿共在,存在的连续性就会产生,婴儿会缓慢地将所有体验整合为一个整体。他开始将“我”与“非我”的体验区分开来。心理学空间X}{i!i|9H#g



y;gR ];E:X5v!b R0Potential space and separation-the infant needs a good start by being merged with his mother. This experience, if all goes well leads the infant to rely and trust his mother. He internalizes these experiences and it becomes part of his inner world. Through the empathy of the mother with her infant, and the therapist with his patient, the infant/patient can internalize and feel safe and start the journey from dependence to autonomy. So separation can take place, but actually there is never separation, unless there is an interruption in the continuity of being by any kind of impingement. No separation occurs because in the potential space all the good experiences of the past are stored. So the baby can be far from his mother but he remembers her, she is inside him. The potential space is the area in the inner world, where meaningful communications take place. It is the place of "playing", a place of freedom, to fantasize, to dream, wish, think freely and creatively.  

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潜在空间和分离: 婴儿需要一个与他的母亲融合的好的开始。如果一切顺利,该体验将使婴儿依赖和信赖他的母亲。他将会把这经验内化并成为他内心世界的一部分。正像是母亲对婴儿的共情和治疗师对他的病人的共情一样,婴儿/病人可以将此内化并感到安全,并开始从依赖走向独立,所以分离得以发生。但是除非有任何形式的侵入打断了存在的连续性,实际上分离永远都没有发生,这是因为潜在空间里存贮了所有的既往的好的体验。所以婴儿可以离开母亲但心理学空间Ik,iU\W3W |


是把她保存在内心里。潜在空间是内心世界的一部分,有意义的交流发生于此。这里是“游戏”的区域,享受自由、幻想、梦想、希望、自在思考和创造性的源泉。心理学空间MD#y{6fFR A

3Yv9y lV0Regression . regression to dependence may occur in the analytic setting as a way of re-living the not-yet-experienced trauma that happened at the time of an early environmental failure. The analytic setting provides the potential for the patient to experience a holding environment, probably for the first time. This holding facilitates the patient to uncover the unconscious hope that an opportunity will arise for the original trauma to be experienced and thus processed. This experience, in turn, will enable the patient, whilst regressed to dependence, to search for and discover the true self. This search within the context of the analytic relationship is part of the healing process. (We must distinguish regression in the transference, from a regressed personality).



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3r&odI,APP*\T}j0True and false self-the true self is where the spontaneous gesture comes from (the gesture that starts communication with the environment). It is the active part of the true self. This is the core of feelings, emotions,   authenticity, feeling real. It is the true experience of the self. It is the potential of initiatives and creativity .the true self is the development of the infant's weak self which is strengthen by mother's adaptation to his needs.

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'e{8t X4_] a5i3?gc0The false self is developed as a result of a defense against impingements that occur when mother fails to adapt to infant's needs at the stage of absolute dependency. Instead of being attentive to the infant and adapting to his needs, the mother forces her own needs on the infant. His spontaneous gesture is not met, so he becomes more and more tuned to the environment by ignoring himself. He is reacting to the outside stimulus and neglects his own needs. He is so desperate so to gives up his needs and becomes a compliant personality. The false self hides the true self which is too weak to face reality. Some compliance is requested in the process of education and socialization, but here W is referring to a broken personality. The False self can be a main characteristic of the patient, he is rigid, never authentic or spontaneous, and he feels unreal, cannot have good relationship but has difficulties in being alone. He is restless and needs stimulations from the outside. He is reacting but never

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@RY,j1X0i6IC b0initiating. He can be an excellent student but will never be original. He is never satisfied, he feels empty. He tries all kinds of adventures, and stimulation (alcohol, drugs) but never satisfied.心理学空间B0b uX4^A

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真实和虚假自体:真实自体将带来自发的举动(该举动始于与环境的交流)。这是真实自体中主动的部分,是感觉、情绪、真诚性、真实感受的内核。这是对自体的真实体验,包含着主动性和创造性的潜能。真实自体成长于母亲对婴儿需求的回应所加固了的虚弱自体。心理学空间;M i ~.go vgc


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L/{OM5G^cL:^wI,Z0Playing the ability to play is an achievement in the emotional development. In playing, the infant/child/adult bridges the inner world with the outer world within and through the transitional space. Playing is the synonymous to creative living. Playing is the extension of the use of transitional object.  playing is the precursor of the ability to have a potential space, where the true self is acting, playing, imagining, and communicating , which later transforms to communication with the outer world , the environment. The child's playing puts the base to the adult ability to think creatively. W sees the interaction in therapy as playing. (It is a modeling of communication, of relationship, an area of freedom and imagination).

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8? D+nT+Y&`aj!C9t0Creativity-for w. to be creative means to be alive, to enjoy life,(these little things of everyday ongoing). To be imaginative, to think, to feel, to be flexible, to feel free and

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})wi KVq/_I0liberate, to be able to choose, develop and change. He do not mean to be an artist, he refers to every human being, and means by it to be alive.  心理学空间)E.F/a |A

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The origin of this free creative personality is the baby who feels that he creates the world. This derives from the mother, who, in her state of primary maternal preoccupation, is able to provide exactly what the infant needs, and thus the infant feels omnipotent, he creates the objects that are offered. His need that was satisfied correctly makes him feel that his wish created it. Only then, can he start to experience frustrations, and grow up from it. This is the basis of healthy personality.

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No matter what happens, life is worth living.心理学空间6m"JK,M;ZYlv(E,ay

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无论发生什么,生活值得一过。  心理学空间G"j VlRC3Q+} l

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TAG: 温尼科特
«英国独立学派的领袖:温尼科特的思想传统及其历史效应 温尼科特/溫尼考特
Winnicottt 1967 母亲与家人在孩童成长中所扮演的镜子角色»
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