作者: 陈明 译 / 1357次阅读 时间: 2018年1月11日
来源: IPA 标签: 前意识 潜意识 无意识 意识


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Ty{$}h:vr0The notion of the unconscious has been universally accepted as the foundational discovery of psychoanalysis and a core assumption of psychoanalytic theory since its very beginning. Even though the concept underwent successive transformations in Freud′s thinking, the unconscious of Freudian topography with its implication of a de-centered theory of subjectivity stands out as the distinctive and radical insight of classical psychoanalysis. While Freud was not the first to use the term, he was the first to give it a crucial and systematic place in his metapsychology and to develop a methodical approach to its various manifestations. Freud (1912a) has given a short excellent account of the grounds for the hypothesis of unconscious psychic processes, pointing to clinical phenomena like posthypnotic suggestion and neurotic, primarily hysterical, symptoms, but also to nonpathological phenomena like jokes, parapraxes and dreams. The assumption of unconscious phenomena can be traced back to the practices of spiritual healing, animism, magnetism, mesmerism, hypnotism and XIX century medical psychology. These practices have in common the dual concept of the mind, which is made of what is observable and, its obverse, i.e., what is hidden and intuitively believed and/or perceived. While in the early years of his career, Freud seems to have embraced this neo-Cartesian dualism, gradually there emerged a conception of a radically different kind of unconscious, one that is not a second consciousness but a series of ongoing “psychical acts” which are qualitatively different from the rational, adult, conscious mind.

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无意识的概念已被普遍接受为精神分析的基础发现,也是精神分析理论之初的核心假设。纵然这个概念在弗洛伊德的思想中承受了连续变化,但是弗洛伊德主义地形说的无意识以其去中心的主体性理论的含义,成为了古典精神分析独特而又激进的洞见。尽管弗洛伊德不是第一个使用这个术语的人,但是,他是第一个在他的元心理学 中赋予了无意识至关重要的系统性地位,并为其诸多表现形式制定了一个有条不紊的方法论。弗洛伊德(1912a)对无意识心理过程假设提出了一个很好的说明,针对的临床现象 ,如催眠后暗示和神经症,主要是歇斯底里的症状,同时也针对非病理性的现象,如笑话、动作倒错和梦想。无意识现象的假设可以追溯到灵性治疗、泛灵论、磁疗、催眠术和十九世纪医学心理学的实践。这些实践贮存的心智双元概念由其观察到的 、以及其对立面构成,即,由隐藏的和本能认为的信念和/或感知构成。弗洛伊德在他职业生涯早期似乎已经接受了这种新笛卡尔式的二元论,逐渐形成了一种完全不同的无意识概念,一种不是次级无意识的、而是一系列不断前行的“心理行为”,这与理性的、成人的意识心智不同。心理学空间6a/Hl+rk2SYV

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Psychoanalysts are not alone in their subjugation to the “stranger within”, but they are unique in making the epistemological, clinical, and ethical implications of this disruptive, yet potentially transformative, presence the daily object of study. Absent the notion of unconscious processes, Freud argued, we are at a loss to explain mental phenomena (1915c, pp. 166-171). He "was never tired of insisting upon the arguments in support of it and combating the objections to it" (Strachey, in: Freud, 1915c, p.161).心理学空间7k#}'C-IM { G

8{7gTQ/m@0精神分析学家在征服“内在的陌生人”中并不孤单,但是 ,精神分析学家这种呈现在日常客体研究中的破坏性的、潜在的变革能力,在认识论、临床和伦理学上是独树一帜的。弗洛伊德认为,如果没有无意识过程的概念,我们就无法解释心理现象(1915c,p162-166)。他“从永不厌倦地支持其论据、 并与反对的意见斗争。”(Strachey, in: Freud, 1915c, p.161)。心理学空间r \1c*Z%]-V

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Freud’s first published use of the term "unconscious" occurred in 1893 in “Studies of Hysteria” (Freud, 1893) and the very last unfinished scrap of his theoretical writing from 1938, entitled “Some Elementary Lessons in Psychoanalysis” (Freud 1940c) is a fresh vindication of the term.


gGM&?$BtP8p0n_0在1893年的《歇斯底里的研究》(Freud, 1893)中 ,弗洛伊德第一次使用了“无意识”这个术语。并且在1938年题为《精神分析的一些基本经验教训》这篇未完成的草稿中为这个术语做了新的辩护。

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Summarizing, expanding and updating recent regional dictionaries (Akhtar, 2009; Auchincloss, 2012; Laplanche & Pontalis, 1967/1973; Borensztejn, 2014), the following definition(s), of the Unconscious can be formulated:


+]r0S3C rV0最新的区域词典(Akhtar, 2009; Auchincloss, 2012; Laplanche & Pontalis, 1967/1973; Borensztejn, 2014)对无意识的进行了总结、扩充和更新,无意识可以表述为以下的定义:

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+{1G5J gV {%h8`0Throughout the evolution of psychoanalytic theory, the concept of (The) Unconscious is used mainly in the following ways: the Dynamic Unconscious, which refers primarily to actively repressed material, unacceptable to the conscious mind; in a broad sense, it refers to all contents that are actively kept out of conscious awareness and which exert pressure in the direction of consciousness; the System Unconscious, which refers to an aspect of mind operating solely according to the 'pleasure-unpleasure' principle and 'primary process' thinking, governed by 'unconscious logic'; the Descriptive Unconscious, also called 'preconscious', which refers simply to the fact that a mental content is not at the moment conscious. The contents of the Unconscious include instincts (drives) and instinctual representatives; material accrued due to 'primal repression'; contents pushed down by the force of repression; and phylogenetic schemata that organize 'primal phantasies’. The Unconscious as a quality, in an adjective form, appears in the Structural theory/Second Topography of Id, Ego and Superego. Here the whole of ID (ES=it) is unconscious, but parts of Ego (Ich=I) and Superego (üBER ICH = Ideal I, internalized moral principles) are unconscious as well. Throughout the Freudian oeuvre and in many post-Freudian and contemporary psychoanalytic models, the adjective form is also part of ancillary notions such as unconscious processes and processing, unconscious object relations, unconscious conflict, unconscious fantasy, unconscious ego functioning, unconscious communication, unconscious logic, amential unconscious, and the ‘real’ (undecipherable) unconscious.心理学空间Y)FbB(s9kF

0Fn!Y9?+a? u$q0在精神分析理论的演变过程中,无意识的概念主要应用在以下几个方面:动力学无意识,主要是指主动地(actively)压抑了无法被意识心智接受的材料;广义上 ,它指的是主动地从意识中排出的所有内容,并且对这些意识施加压力;系统性的无意识,指的是心智由“无意识的逻辑”支配的、完全根据“快乐-不快乐”原则和“初级过程”思维运作的面向;描述性的 无意识,也被称为“前意识(Preconscious)”,简单的说就是指这样的事实:心智的内容不是当下的意识。无意识的内容包括本能(instincts)(驱力)以及本能(instinctual)的表征;由“原始压抑”产生的物质; 被压抑力量压倒的内容;以及组织“原初幻想”的系统性图式(phylogenetic schemata)。无意识作为一种特征(quality),其形容词的形式出现在结构理论/本我、自我和超我的第二地形说之中。在这里,整个ID(ES=ID)是无意识的,但部分的自我Ego(Ich=I)和超我Superego(üBER ICH =理想我Ideal I,内化的道德原则)也是无意识的。在弗洛伊德的全部作品和后弗洛伊德 主义以及当代精神分析模型中,无意识的形容词形式也是辅助概念的一部分,例如无意识的过程和加工,无意识的客体关系,无意识的冲突,无意识的幻想,无意识的自我功能,无意识的沟通,无意识的逻辑,精神错乱的无意识,以及“真正的”(难以言表)的无意识。心理学空间Blo!WB9d-A/V

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Chronologically, Freud’s work can be divided into the following time periods: The Discovery of the Dynamic Unconscious which covers the period 1893-1900, until the publication of The Interpretation of Dreams; the period between 1900 and 1923 can be titled either The System Unconscious or The Topographic Unconscious. Lastly, the period after 1923, following the publication of The Ego and The Id, can be referred to as The Unconscious of the Structural Model/Second topography model of the Mind. As Freud’s theory building was non-linear and marked by increasing complexity, these necessarily overlap.

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弗洛伊德关于无意识的作品按时间顺序可以分为以下几个时期:涵盖了1893-1900年作品的动力学无意识发现,到《梦的解析》出版为止;1900和1923之间的时期可以称为“系统性的无意识”或“地形 学无意识”。最后,在1923年《自我与本我》的出版之后的时期,可以被称为“无意识的结构模型/心智的第二地形模型”。由于弗洛伊德的理论体系是非线性的,并且日益复杂,这些必然重叠。

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2]SHH9xu$K0As a matter of form and style, Freud’s abbreviations of Ucs, Pcs, and Cs will refer to the words Unconscious, Preconscious, and Conscious, respectively. Use of the capital or small letters in words like Unconscious, Id, Ego, Superego is consistent with the specific school’s usage. The nomenclature of Topographic Theory (English-Speaking North American Psychoanalysis) is synonymous with the First/Early Topography of European and parts of French-speaking Canadian psychoanalytic parlance; North American Structural Theory and Late/Second Topography of European and parts of French-speaking North American psychoanalysis are also synonymous. Throughout, both names for respective theories are used side by side. Unless stated otherwise, the italics are used throughout to highlight conceptual terminology.

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)NjrX1r sq7X0s0作为一种形式和风格, 弗洛伊德将无意识、前意识和意识分别缩写为Ucs,Pcs和Cs。像Unconscious, Id, Ego, Superego这种在单词中使用大小写字母的方式与特定学派的用法一致。“地形学理论”的命名过程(说英语的北美精神分析)与欧洲和部分讲法语的加拿大精神分析的“第一/早期地地形学”术语是同义词;北美的“结构理论”和欧洲和部分讲法语的加拿大精神分析的“晚期/第二地形学”也是同义词。,两种理论的名称 自始至终都是并行使用的。除非另有说明,“斜体字”将贯穿始终,以突出概念术语。


t5n.@ SCC0Freud’s major theoretical contributions to the subject of the unconscious can be found in the following works: Chapter VII of The Interpretation of Dreams (1900b), Papers on Metapsychology (1915 a,b,c) and The Ego and The Id (1923a). A summary of Freud's conceptualizations of the unconscious can also be found in: The Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1916, 1917), Two Encyclopedia Articles (1923b), New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1933) and An Outline of Psychoanalysis (1940a). Strachey cautions the English reader to observe that an ambiguity resides in the English word ‘unconscious’ which is scarcely present in the German. The German words ‘bewusst’ and ‘unbewusst’ have the grammatical form of passive participles, and their usual sense is something like ‘consciously known’ and ‘not consciously known’. For Freud, consciousness and unconsciousness were both passive experiences.

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弗洛伊德对无意识主题的主要理论贡献可以在以下几个作品中发现:《梦的解释》第七章(1900b),关于元心理学的论文(1915a,b,c)以及《自我与本我》(1923a)。 弗洛伊德对无意识的概念化总结也可以在以下作品中发现:《精神分析引论》(1916, 1917),两本百科全书的文章(1923b),《精神分析引论新编》(1933)以及《精神分析纲要》(1940a)。Strachey提醒英国读者注意,德语中几乎不存在“无意识unconscious”这个词。德语中的“bewusst”和“unbewusst”这两个词汇具有被动分词的语法形式,而这个两个词通常的意义是‘有意识地知道’和‘不是有意识地知道'。对弗洛伊德来说,“意识consciousness”和“无意识unconsciousness”都是被动的体验。心理学空间)@*HD Y^(w8L

TAG: 前意识 潜意识 无意识 意识
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