作者: 陈明 译 / 1343次阅读 时间: 2018年1月11日
来源: IPA


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2、概述:弗洛伊德的无意识概念的心理学空间:Q7{H T,r/}6e$I1y

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II. A. The Discovery of the Dynamic Unconscious (1893-1900)

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4F"r)?OGEb m02.1 动力学无意识的发现(1893-1900)心理学空间.PL,yc9?H)Ag H


Psychoanalysis was born with Freud’s revolutionary discovery of the dynamic function of defense in the etiology of hysteria. The defense against remembering (repression) clued Freud into the importance of resistance, “…a psychical force in the patients which was opposed to the pathogenic ideas becoming conscious (being remembered). A new understanding seemed to open before my eyes when it occurred to me that this must no doubt be the same psychical force that had played a part in the generating of the hysterical symptom and had at that time prevented the pathogenic idea from becoming conscious” (Breuer & Freud, 1893-1895, p 268, original emphasis). This force of resistance, like its opposing counterpoint the upward force of the rejected pathogenic material, was to a certain extent quantifiable with memories "stratified" in proportion to their nearness to the "pathogenic nucleus". Moreover, it was precisely through its repression that the idea became the cause of morbid symptoms, that is, became pathogenic (ibid, p 285). In order to succeed, repression demands a permanent expenditure of force. Symptoms are the result of the failure of repression, that is to say, the return of the repressed. Simultaneously, the affect that is torn from the repressed idea, is used for a "somatic innervation" (ibid, p 285) appearing as a hysterical conversion into a bodily symptom. The innovative psychoanalytic method of free association developed out of the realization that "it is quite hopeless to try to penetrate directly to the nucleus of the pathogenic organization" (ibid, p 292, original emphasis) since the interior layers of the pathogenic organization are increasingly alien to the ego (ibid, p 290).心理学空间7yu*c _6\;S D6q%a


精神分析诞生于弗洛伊德革命性地发现了歇斯底里病因学中防御的动力学功能。针对回忆的防御(压抑),作为线索,将弗洛伊德引向了阻抗的重要性,“…患者与病原想法抗争的精神力量形成了意识(被记住)。当我发现在歇斯底里症状发作中部分起作用的精神力量和在那个时候阻止病原想法的精神力量(Breuer & Freud, 1893-1895, p 268, 原文强调)无疑都是同一种精神力量的时候,似乎在我面前开启了一个新的认识。”这种阻抗的力量,如同与之相对应的、对抗着被拒绝治病物的向上力量,在一定程度上可以用这些力量中亲近“治病原核”的记忆分层比例量化。此外,这个想法正是通过压抑变成病态的症状,即,成为了病原(同上,285页)。压抑若要获得成功,就需要持久地支出力量。症状是压抑失败的结果,即,压抑物的反扑。同时,被压抑的想法的撕裂影响用于“躯体神经支配”(同上,285页),表现为将歇斯底里转化成躯体症状。精神分析自由联想的革命性方法是从“完全无望地试图直接穿透病原组织核心”的现实中发展而来,(同上,292页,原文强调)因为病原组织内层越来越不相容于自我(同上,290页)。


,MT `#Q,EW*u0Not all experiences from early childhood undergo repression. The Freudian theory stipulated that the content of the unconscious consists in fixated childhood wishes marked by infantile sexuality. In this early period, as known from his correspondence to Fliess, (Freud, 1892-1899), Freud was developing what has become known as the seduction theory: the child has been seduced by an adult, a relation depositing disturbing traces which later appear in consciousness, displaced and distorted by forces opposing their becoming conscious. The seduction theory was essentially a theory of pathogenic pre-adult sexual trauma, as a sole determinant of later psychopathology. The childhood traumatic experience may have been forgotten, dissociated, or repressed, only to be reactivated or to exert a deferred traumatic effect in adolescence, after puberty. An enduring legacy of the dynamic aspect of the unconscious was the notion of forces paired in dynamic opposition, resulting in new psychic formations. During 1893-1895, Freud spoke of the opposition between the affects associated with traumatic events and the moral prohibitions of the society. As Freud proceeded with his self-analysis, during 1895-1900, he came to see the opposing forces as increasingly more internal: during this time, the construction of his initial conception of the mental apparatus, organized by two forces paired in dynamic opposition, the unconscious wish and the reality oriented prohibition, was underway.

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童年早期的经历不会全都受到压抑。弗洛伊德理论规定,固着于童年愿望的无意识内容经由幼年性行为标注。在这个早期阶段,正如他与弗莱斯的通信所知,(佛洛伊德,1892-1899),佛洛伊德发展了被称为诱惑理论的观点:孩子被一个成年人引诱,一个关系沉积在一种令人不安的痕迹之中,这种痕迹随后出现在无意识之中,并且被反意识化的力量置换和扭曲。诱惑理论本质上是一种成年之前的致病性性创伤理论,并充当了后来精神病理学的唯一决定因素。童年创伤经历可能会被遗忘、解离或压抑,只是在发育后的青春期被重新激活,或在青春期发挥延迟的创伤效应。无意识动力面向的持久遗产曾经是动态对立配对力量双方的观念,导致新的心理形成。在1893-1895年间,佛洛伊德谈到了创伤事件相关的影响和社会的道德禁令之间的对立。当佛洛伊德进行自我分析时,在1895年至1900年期间,他看到了越来越内部的对立的力量:在这段时间里,他最初的精神装置概念的建造物,是由两个动态对立的力量、无意识的愿望和面向现实的禁令组成的。心理学空间 Bik&e*C8D4iO cb)u

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