II. OVERVIEW OF FREUDIAN CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
II. A. The Discovery of the Dynamic Unconscious (1893-1900)
Psychoanalysis was born with Freud’s revolutionary discovery of the dynamic function of defense in the etiology of hysteria. The defense against remembering (repression) clued Freud into the importance of resistance, “…a psychical force in the patients which was opposed to the pathogenic ideas becoming conscious (being remembered). A new understanding seemed to open before my eyes when it occurred to me that this must no doubt be the same psychical force that had played a part in the generating of the hysterical symptom and had at that time prevented the pathogenic idea from becoming conscious” (Breuer & Freud, 1893-1895, p 268, original emphasis). This force of resistance, like its opposing counterpoint the upward force of the rejected pathogenic material, was to a certain extent quantifiable with memories "stratified" in proportion to their nearness to the "pathogenic nucleus". Moreover, it was precisely through its repression that the idea became the cause of morbid symptoms, that is, became pathogenic (ibid, p 285). In order to succeed, repression demands a permanent expenditure of force. Symptoms are the result of the failure of repression, that is to say, the return of the repressed. Simultaneously, the affect that is torn from the repressed idea, is used for a "somatic innervation" (ibid, p 285) appearing as a hysterical conversion into a bodily symptom. The innovative psychoanalytic method of free association developed out of the realization that "it is quite hopeless to try to penetrate directly to the nucleus of the pathogenic organization" (ibid, p 292, original emphasis) since the interior layers of the pathogenic organization are increasingly alien to the ego (ibid, p 290).
精神分析诞生于弗洛伊德革命性地发现了歇斯底里病因学中防御的动力学功能。针对回忆的防御（压抑），作为线索，将弗洛伊德引向了阻抗的重要性，“…患者与病原想法抗争的精神力量形成了意识（被记住）。当我发现在歇斯底里症状发作中部分起作用的精神力量和在那个时候阻止病原想法的精神力量(Breuer & Freud, 1893-1895, p 268, 原文强调)无疑都是同一种精神力量的时候，似乎在我面前开启了一个新的认识。”这种阻抗的力量，如同与之相对应的、对抗着被拒绝治病物的向上力量，在一定程度上可以用这些力量中亲近“治病原核”的记忆分层比例量化。此外，这个想法正是通过压抑变成病态的症状，即，成为了病原（同上，285页）。压抑若要获得成功，就需要持久地支出力量。症状是压抑失败的结果，即，压抑物的反扑。同时，被压抑的想法的撕裂影响用于“躯体神经支配”（同上，285页），表现为将歇斯底里转化成躯体症状。精神分析自由联想的革命性方法是从“完全无望地试图直接穿透病原组织核心”的现实中发展而来，（同上，292页，原文强调）因为病原组织内层越来越不相容于自我（同上，290页）。