Modern Conflict Theory
作者: CHARLES BRENNER / 12370次阅读 时间: 2012年3月27日
标签: 冲突理论
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网Modern Conflict Theory
t0}Wg%D1il0CHARLES BRENNER
/j7x KI%UV'{y"Ad0mints 翻译
g$DM6Rd/Q/zg;o0

u L1W-[:`0k%p d3s Wq0The body of psychoanalytic theory about the mind and its functioning has the sobriquet modern conflict theory for two reasons. First, they indicate its relation to Freud's so-called structural theory and his so-called topographic theory, both of which attribute psycho-neurotic symptom formation to conflict among or between mental systems or structures. In the case of the earlier, topographic theory the systems or structures are called Unconscious, Preconscious, and Conscious. They are abbreviated as Ucs., Pcs., and Cs. In the case of the later, structural theory, they are called id, ego, and superego. The later theory was an extension and modification of the earlier one. Modern conflict theory is an extension and modification of the later, so-called structural theory. Second, these words distinguish it from the many other psychoanalytic theories of psychopathology, such as Kleinian theory, Bionian theory, relational theory, subjectivist theory, and so on.心理学空间 t.A5ClG

U-f$c0J_0精神分析理论思想及其功能的体系被称为现代冲突理论有两个原因。首先,它们表明弗洛伊德所谓的结构理论和他所谓的地形理论的关系,这两种理论将神经症症状的形成归因于精神系统或结构之间的冲突。早期地形理论的系统(或结构)被称为无意识,前意识和意识。他们简称为Ucs,Pcs,和Cs。至于后来的结构理论,他们被称为本我,自我,和超越。后来的理论是对早期的一个延伸和修改。现代冲突理论是对所谓的结构理论的延伸和修改。第二,这些术语区别于许多其他精神病理学精神分析的理论,例如Kleinian学说,Bionian学说,关系学说,主观主义学说,等等。

k/S.] n,KL(LIk0心理学空间hh_7Q:F3Mp k

The brain particular, the forebrains the organ of the mind. Mental functioning is one aspect of cerebral functioning. The functional capacity of the brain changes dramatically during the course of the first several years after birth; with respect to its functioning, the brain is a different organ at birth from what it is later on. By the age of three to four years, on average, the brain is capable of acquiring language and of having thoughts that require language to frame them. Among the thoughts that begin to be identifiable at that time are pleasure-seeking wishes of a sexual and aggressive nature. Children yearn for the attention of other persons, particularly their parents (and parent substitutes) and for the stimulating pleasure of physical contact with them. They are jealous of any rival. They intensely resent any evidence of infidelity, lack of interest, or neglect on the part of the persons they yearn for. They desire revenge, whether against a successful rival, the faithless loved one, or both. Being ignorant, they are curious about what adult sexual partners do to each other and with each other and which to do the same themselves. Being relatively small, weak, ignorant, and unintelligent, they feel inferior and humiliated and, in turn, miserable, desperate, and enraged at feeling so. They intensely desire to be grown-up, sexual men and women who are as clever, wise, and sexually successful as the adults around them seem to them to be. In brief, as Freud pointed out, with respect to his psychological side, a child's sexual life is in full flower by the time a child is four or five years old, long before it reaches puberty and the beginning of physical sexual maturity.心理学空间1kS*F%XFf#]

心理学空间)i"P@(U|h5?$P-\

大脑,确切的说是做为心灵器官的前脑的心理功能,是脑功能的一个方面。大脑功能的能力在出生后的头几年中急剧变化;随着功能的变化,出生之时和随后的大脑是不同的器官。平均年龄到了三四岁,大脑有了获取语言和产生思想的能力,需要语言去建构之。在形成区辨别之初的想法中,充满了享乐主义愿望——性和攻击性。他们会对任何不忠的证据、缺少关爱或者他所渴望的人的疏忽充满愤怒。他们渴望复仇,不论是对一个成功的对手,失信的所爱的人,或两者兼而有之。因为无知,他们对成年的性伙伴之间所做的、每一个人与自己同样做的感到好奇。相对地小,弱,无知,愚笨,他们感到自卑和屈辱,或者说,悲惨,绝望,感觉如此而暴怒。他们强烈的渴望长大,性感的男人或女人被认为是聪明,明智,和性感成功的,因为他们周围的成年人似乎如此。简言之,正如弗洛伊德指出,关于孩子的心理层面,一个孩子的性生活的花期是在四五岁的时期,在青春期和机体成熟之前。

xp tO?fLp9l0

O'W[bD0心理学空间,{!L ^#`8KT'^
However, young children ages three to six years are not independent creatures. They are dependent on their caregiverssually parentsot only physically, but emotionally as well. Parental love, physical contact, approval, admiration, protection, and all that go with them are of the utmost importance as sources of pleasure before, during, and after that time of life. Contrariwise, anything thatn a child's mindorfeits or threatens to forfeit parental love and approval, anything that a child believes will turn one or both parents against it, or has already done so, becomes a source of intense unpleasure. High on the list of such sources of intense unpleasure are a child's own sexual and aggressive wishes, being that many of these are directed toward his parents, against his parents, or both. In other words, the sexual and aggressive wishes that were briefly outlined are longed for and shunned at the same time, a situation labeled as one of mental or psychic conflict.

c_sskc6f-o"T#p[0心理学空间+I9w nH0[e

然而,3-6岁间的幼儿并非是独立的生物。他们依赖于他们的照料者,父母在心灵和身体上的照顾。父母的爱,身体接触,赞同,钦佩,保护,以及所有与他们作为之前,期间和之后最重要的乐趣来源。反之,任何一个孩子的mindorfeits或威胁,丧失父母的爱和批准,任何一个孩子认为父母中的一人或全部都反对,并已经这样做了,便成了强烈的不愉快的来源。这种强烈的不愉快的来源,孩子具有较高的性和侵略性的愿望评分,很多,这些都指向他的父母对他的父母,或两者兼而有之。换句话说,性和侵略性的简要介绍的愿望渴望在同一时间,标记为一体的精神或心理冲突的情况避之唯恐不及。

5pz-UY.T[6~[eL:c0心理学空间Yy ]r%O.^

心理学空间ZTxB+d(I*}
In general, the mind functions so as to achieve pleasure in thought and action and to avoid unpleasure. In a situation of mental conflict, an individual's thoughts and actions are such as to achieve the maximum of pleasure with a minimum of unpleasure. Such thoughts and actions are labeled compromise formations. Every child, by the very nature of things, finds itself wishing for things that are intensely pleasurable in fact or fantasy and that are also associated with intense unpleasure. Its sexual and aggressive wishes become associated with intensely unpleasurable ideas of disapproval, rejection, abandonment, retribution, and punishment by its parents. That association, that concatenation of pleasure and unpleasure which is the essence of mental conflict, is an inevitable feature of the mental life of every child.心理学空间!b TWP:o

&KgOxde}UeMD0
r!JK O;O u0心理学空间5` FhE?$[ ~\
The compromise formations resulting from conflicts over the sexual and aggressive wishes characteristic of ages three to six years can persist into later childhood and into adult life and give rise to psycho-neurotic symptoms and neurotic character traits, as Freud discovered as early as 1985. What modern conflict theory adds is that they always persist into adult life, that they are ubiquitous in mental life from the time they first appear. Every thought and every action is a compromise formation that is the result, however disguised and distorted, of conflicts over childhood sexual and aggressive wishes. Such compromise formations are not occasional and abnormal. They are ubiquitous. The difference between "normal" and "pathological" in mental life is not the presence or absence of conflict and compromise formation. The difference is a quantitative, not a qualitative, one. If a compromise formation allows for adequate pleasure from the satisfaction of sexual and aggressive wishes of childhood origin, if it does not involve too much unpleasure in the form of anxiety and depressive affect, if its defensive aspect does not result in too much inhibition of function and too much by way of self-punitive and self-destructive trends, it deserves to be called normal. If the reverse is the case, it is properly labeled pathological.
CQO_*t6tk!`.f0
6O5Zn}0{4P#t0The calamities, real and fantasied, that give rise to unpleasure can be categorized, as Freud did, into abandonment or object loss, loss of love, and genital injury. The last name is usually referred to, inexactly, as castration. Common to all is, usually, the idea that the child's parents did or will cause them. The nature of the unpleasure can be classified as anxiety or depressive affect. The former, if the thought is that the calamity will happen in the near or distant future, and the latter if the thought is that the calamity has already happened, that it is a fact of life.
i&c:G@$b$P?;E0心理学空间5QX{*Y;JC3B
Changing to the structural theory from the topographic theory substantially altered psychoanalytic practice by introducing the concept that when an analyst is engaged in analyzing a pathological compromise formation, the analysis of the defensive aspect of the compromise formation is an important part of the analytic work, more specifically, that defenses are to be analyzed, not dealt with in some other way. The change to modern conflict theory from the structural theory makes explicit the idea that every thought and action is potential grist for the analytic mill, rather than just the ones judged to be pathological.
-C#CrF'E0
O-q \"U@_.{0Both the topographic and the structural theory include the conclusion that the mind is best understood as composed of separable symptoms, agencies or structures, each of which is defined according to its functions. As this conclusion appears in the structural theory, the ego is the part of the mind that is attached to and deals with external reality while the id is equally attached to pleasure-seeking sexual and aggressive wishes. Among analysts who accept modern conflict theory as valid there are some who accept the validity of the idea that the mind is composed of separable, functionally different agencies, and some who consider that idea is invalid and should be discarded.
wr|u0h0
0mZm.I._ l0CHARLES BRENNER
_0xt.PMK l@)E0
R;N9^ \8zEn0Bibliography
(|1X1]&}*y1P0Brenner, Charles. (1982). The mind in conflict. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.心理学空间CT;ts;E dc8Gd
心理学空间5K"[HRuSO @4`B+w
. (2002). Conflict, compromise formation, and structural theory. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 71, 397-417.心理学空间w~[t v8~

Wgk{ J&w#UP8lM0Freud, Anna. (1936). The ego and the mechanisms of defence. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.心理学空间 @CxCM P]K!P
心理学空间nmt}Ld ]I2z
Freud, Sigmund. (1933). New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. SE, 22: 1-182.心理学空间5~2]zt3QB\8]
心理学空间\{S%j[OsF6wP"v
Source: International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, ©2005 Gale Cengage. All Rights Reserved. Full copyright.心理学空间1W@2U l5~j.A4x

www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
TAG: 冲突理论
«论“自我意识的自欺本质” 意识潜意识本我自我超我
《意识潜意识本我自我超我》
精神分析辞汇»