心理学书籍 » 助人技术
助人技术

本书是一本理论与实践相结合的教材,全书根据希尔教授的“探索-领悟-行动”的三阶段模式,提出了一种将当事人中心理论、精神分析理论以及认知行为理论整合起来的方法。书中主要介绍了探索、领悟、行动这三个阶段的理论基础并具体介绍了这三个阶段的基本技术,对于每种技术都包括为何使用这种技术、如何使用这种技术、使用该技术的例子、使用该技术的效果、使用该技术遇到的困难以及有益的提示,最后还包括练习或活动。本书特别适合作为心理咨询方向学生咨询技术实践课的教材,也可作为心理咨询从业人员的参考用书。

助人技术:探索、领悟、行动三阶段模式(第3版)(心理咨询与治疗系列教材)

作者:[美]克拉拉·E·希尔

出版:中国人民大学出版社 2013-05

ISBN:9787300171906

平装:16开306页

定价:¥49.80

作者简介

克拉拉•E•希尔(Clara E.Hill),咨询心理学博士,1974年于美国南伊利诺伊大学获得博士学位。同年在美国马里兰大学心理系任助教,开始了她的职业生涯。现任美国马里兰大学心理系教授、咨询心理学项目副主任,《心理治疗研究》(Psychotherapy Research)北美区主编。她曾任心理治疗研究协会(Society for Psychotherapy Research,SPR)国际部主席、北美区主席,《咨询心理学杂志》(Journal of Counseling Psychology)主编。她的研究方向为助人技术、心理治疗的过程与结果、治疗师的培训、梦的工作和质性研究。

目录

 概观

助人导引

 什么是助人?

 助人的促进作用

 助人的疑问之处

 人们什么时候会向他人寻求帮助?

 助人是有效的吗?

 助人工作中的文化问题

 成为一名助人者

 助人者求助的好处

 本书概观

 这本书适合你吗?

 结语

助人概述

 三阶段模式的理论假设

 三阶段模式

 共情同感基础上的合作

 一个关于助人过程与结果的模型

 结语

助人的伦理

 伦理守则

 一般伦理原则

 初学者的伦理问题

 恰当处理伦理困境

 结语

第二篇 探索阶段

探索阶段概述

  理论背景:罗杰斯的当事人中心理论

探索阶段的目标

  探索阶段的技术

  结语

专注、倾听和观察技术

专注、倾听和观察

  专注和倾听中的文化问题

非言语行为

  轻微的言语行为

  要避免的非言语行为

  放松、自然但专业

  倾听和观察技术

结语

帮助当事人探索想法的技术

  探索想法的理据

重述

  针对想法的开放式提问

探索想法技术比较

帮助当事人探索情感的技术

  探索情感的理据

情感反映

情感表露

  针对情感的开放式提问

探索情感技术比较

探索阶段技术整合

  选择促进探索的目标

  选择与目标相匹配的技术

助人者的自我觉察

文化上的考虑

实施探索阶段的困难

  应对困难的策略

  探索阶段示例

第三篇 领悟阶段

领悟阶段概述

什么是领悟?

理论背景:精神分析理论

  形成关于当事人心理动力学的假设

  领悟阶段的目标和技术

  结语

促进觉察的技术

挑战

其他促进觉察的技术

助人者使用挑战时经历的困难

第十一章 促进领悟的技术

  针对领悟的开放式提问

解释

  领悟性自我表露

  阅读推荐

第十二章 即时化技术

  运用即时化技术

  阅读推荐

第十三章 领悟阶段的技术整合

  解释性干预的步骤

  关于运用领悟技术的提示

  多元文化视角

  助人者在领悟阶段可能经历的困难

克服领悟阶段困难的策略

  领悟阶段互动示例

第四篇 行动阶段

第十四章 行动阶段概述

  行动阶段的理据

  行动的障碍

  哲学基础

进入行动阶段的时机的标志

理论背景:行为和认知理论

  行动阶段的目标

结语

第十五章 实现行动目标的技术

  针对行动的开放式提问

提供信息

提供针对当事人的反馈

  过程建议

  直接指导

  策略表露

第十六章 实现四个行动目标的步骤

  放松

  行为改变

  行为演练

决策

第十七章 行动阶段的技术整合

 整合行动技术

 助人者在行动阶段可能经历的困难

 克服行动阶段困难的策略

第五篇 整合

第十八章 三阶段之整合

 会谈设置

 对难度较大的当事人及临床情况的处理

 一个扩展的互动示例

 结语

参考文献

附录A 会谈回顾表

附录B 督导师评价表

附录C 会谈记录样表

附录D 助人者意图清单

附录E 助人技术系统表

附录F 使用助人技术系统表进行研究

 方法

 练习转录稿

 参考文献

附录G 当事人反应系统表

附录H 当事人行为系统表

附录I 会谈过程和效果问卷

 会谈过程和效果问卷(当事人版)

 会谈过程和效果问卷(助人者版)

附录J 自我觉察与管理策略问卷

附录K 咨询活动自我效能感量表

 第一部分

 第二部分

 第三部分

附录L 过程记录

译后记

精彩片断

  本书将介绍一个构筑在实践、理论和实证研究基础上的整合的助人模式。立足于实践和理论是非常重要的,这意味着此模式是从那些成就卓著的临床心理学家和理论心理学家的理论中发展而来的,是以他们卓越的工作成果为基础的。罗杰斯、弗洛伊德(Freud)、埃里克森(Erikson)、马勒(Mahler)、斯金纳(Skinner)、艾利斯(Ellis)、贝克(Beck)以及其他一些临床心理学家已经对人类的本质、心理咨询和心理治疗中改变发生的机制,以及协助个体发挥潜能、实现目标的技术有了深入的洞见。而我将要介绍的这个包括三个阶段的助人模式正是基于这些睿智的理论家的贡献,读者们可以借此模式来了解他们的理论精髓。 

  使咨询模式建立在实证研究的基础上,也很重要。实证研究可以帮助助人者了解如何运用助人技术是有效的,如何是无效的。我们之所以对这些技术的运用有很强的信心,是因为这些技术经过实证研究确认是有效的。当然,助人技术的研究才刚刚起步,还存在着很多未知领域。因此,我希望通过提供一个清晰的助人过程模式,吸引更多愿意做实证研究的人来检验它[关于实证的基础,请参阅本书的姊妹篇(Hill,2001)]。 

  此模式包括三个阶段:探索阶段、领悟阶段、行动阶段。探索阶段以当事人中心理论为基础(例如,Rogers,1942,1951,1957,1959);领悟阶段以精神分析理论和人际理论(例如,Freud,1940/1949;Teyber,2006;Yalom,1980)为基础;行动阶段的理论则来自行为治疗理论(例如,Goldfried & Davison,1994;Kazdin,2001;Watson & Tharp, 2006)。之所以把这些主要理论整合在此三阶段模式中,是因为有实际证据表明它们是有效的(参见Wampold, 2001)。

  助人过程可看作一个不断变化的互动事件序列(Hill,1992)。一般来说,对于如何帮助当事人,助人者会逐渐形成一套自己的设想。助人者的设想来源于他们对当事人状况的了解以及他们与当事人共同商定的在特定时限内要达成的目标。设想一旦形成,助人者则开始运用言语和非言语的技术对当事人进行干预。同时,当事人以自己的方式来回应助人者施予的干预。当事人的个人特点决定了他们会用什么样的行为与助人者互动。如此来说,助人过程不仅涉及外显的行为,也涉及助人者与当事人的认知过程(比如助人者的设想和当事人的反应)。意识到自己的助人设想和意图,有助于助人者选择有效的干预措施,而留意当事人对干预措施的反应,能帮助助人者设计后续的干预。 

Interview With Clara E. Hill About Helping Skills: Facilitating  Exploration, Insight, and Action, Third Edition

In this video author Clara E. Hill talks about her book, Helping Skills:  Facilitating Exploration, Insight, and Action, Third Edition. (5  minutes, 21 seconds)

Transcript

Interviewer [female voice]: Your book, Helping Skills, is now in its third edition and has become a bestseller among books for trainee psychotherapists and other skilled helpers. Do you have any thoughts as to why it enjoys continued success?

Clara Hill: Well, I'm glad it does. What I've been told is that it's relatively easy to understand, it's pretty clearly written. But it also doesn't talk down to people. So, I think a problem with a lot of the other books in the field is either they get way too complicated and make therapy seem like it's too difficult to understand, or it's too simplistic. And so some of the authors really speak down to people and make it feel like they're not very smart.

And so I think — because I've taught Helping Skills for over four years now, and I really try to pay attention to my trainees and what levels they're at and take their feedback very seriously — I've been able to kind of aim it at an audience that can get it and can understand it.

Interviewer: Could you briefly explain your three-stage model of helping?

Clara Hill: Yes. The three stages are exploration, insight, and action. The idea is that exploration — the client needs to explore deeply and think deeply about their thoughts and feelings about an issue. And then once they've thought deeply about it, it kind of naturally moves in to insight, where they understand things at a deeper level. Sometimes with the therapist having to move back and give them alternate perspectives and challenge them, and work with the therapeutic relationship. And then once they understand themselves at a deep level, what we want to help people do is move to action, to try to figure out how they can change what they do. So it's important that you not just understand but that you move on to making changes in life.

Interviewer: How has your model evolved over time since you first began using it?

Clara Hill: I think the main thing is that at first it was relatively rigid. At first it was kind of like you do reflections of feelings, and then you do interpretations, and then you do action or interactional skills. And as I become more comfortable, I think, with myself and as a therapist, what I've realized is that things don't work that simply but that you need to be more flexible and more adaptive to doing what works at a given time.

So, what I think now is more we teach therapists these different skills, we help them learn when to use them and how to use them. And then once they kind of master the skills, then they go out and do what works for them. So it's not as much an automatic kind of thing as, "Here are some skills. Let's focus on you for a while." And then once you go out, try to work with a client, then you try to figure out what works with that particular client.

Interviewer: What are the most common challenges students struggle with in learning to become professional helpers?

Clara Hill: The biggest challenge is moving from a friendship role to a professional role. And by that I mean in a friendship role, we talk 50/50. In a professional role, the therapist often talks 15, 20 percent of the time. That's really difficult to shift. In a friendship role, we give lots of advice, we self-disclose. And those aren't things we do typically in a therapy relationship.

So, it's really difficult at the beginning for a therapist to shift that role. And then later, the more advanced skills are more difficult in terms of learning when to challenge, when to use immediacy, when to do interpretation. But that beginning thing is really making that major shift from a friendship to a professional role.

Interviewer: To what extent is becoming a skilled helper an innate gift or talent, and to what extent is it learned?

Clara Hill: Both. Certain people have more empathy than others. And people have — by the time they come in to wanting to be trained as a therapist — they've been interacting with people for all their lives. So, there are certain people who have more interactional skills, more emotional intelligence, more ability to be empathic. And those are the people we tend to take into training, both by our selection and by themselves selecting themselves.

And then we can shape them a little bit. We can get them to use more of some skills and less of some other ones. We can help them not interrupt as much, to not self-disclose as much but to use more reflections of feelings. But it really is an interaction between the two, such that we take talented people who are emotionally intelligent and then help them become more aware of their behaviors and figure out what effect they're having on clients.

And one of the things we always talk about is helping people look at their reaction to clients. Not that there are specific skills that are the right ones, but for a particular client, there are things that they could do that could help.


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