散步可以提升你的情绪
作者: Christian Jarrett/BP / 2392次阅读 时间: 2017年8月29日
来源: 陈明翻译 标签: 积极情绪 散步
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Walking lifts your mood, even when you don’t expect it to
散步可以提升你的情绪,即使你不期待它。
By Christian Jarrett/BPS
陈明翻译

图片来源GIPHY.com

The mere act of putting one foot in front of the other for a few minutes has a significant beneficial impact on our mood, regardless of where we do it, why we do it, or what effect we expect the walk to have. That’s according to a pair of psychologists at Iowa State University who claim their study, published in Emotion, is the first to strip away all the many confounds typically associated with exercise research – things like social contact, fresh air, nature, the satisfaction of reaching fitness goals, and the expectation of the activity being beneficial – to show that the simple act of walking, in and of itself, is a powerful mood lifter.

只要迈开步子走几分钟,就会对我们的情绪有很大的好处,不管我们在哪儿散步,我们为什么散步,或者我们期望散步有什么效果。这是根据爱荷华州立大学心理学家发表在《情绪》上的研究所得出的结论。他们说,这项研究第一次揭示了所有与锻炼研究相关的典型困惑,这些包括社会接触,新鲜的空气,大自然,达到健身目标后的满意度,期望活动有益身心。这项研究显示,仅仅是散步活动本身就是一个强大的情绪提升工具。

The reason, argue Jeffrey Miller and Zlatan Krizan, is connected with how we evolved to move to find food and other rewards, which means positive emotions are closely linked with our movement. In essence, the psychologists write, “movement not only causes increased positive affect [emotional feelings] … but movement partially embodies, or in a sense reflects, positive affect.”

Jeffrey Miller和Zlatan Krizan声称,散步之所以有利于情绪的提升是因为散步与我们寻找食物以及获得他人奖励的进化方式有关,即,积极情绪与运动紧密相连。心理学家们写道:“本质上,运动不仅会增加积极的情感(情绪感受)……但运动部分(具身地)体现了积极的情感,或者在某种意义上反映了积极的情感。”

The researchers tested hundreds of undergrad students across three studies with the true aims of the research disguised in each case – for example in the first instance it was framed as supposedly being an investigation into the effects of unfamiliar environments on mood. The researchers also checked to ensure no one guessed the true aims of the study.

研究人员在三项研究中对几百名本科学生进行了测试,这三项研究的真正目的伪装在每一种情况之中,例如,将最初的研究伪装为假定中的,陌生环境中对情绪影响。研究人员还对此进行了检查,以确保没有人猜到这项研究的真正目的。

Two of the studies showed that students who spent 12 minutes on a group walking tour of campus buildings, or on a dull walking tour on their own of the interior of a campus building, subsequently reported more positive mood, in terms of their ratings of feelings like joviality, vigour, attentiveness, and self-assurance, than others who spent the same time sitting and looking at photographs of the same campus tour, or watching a video of the same building interior tour.

两个研究表明,学生们花了12分钟一起参观了校园建筑,或者在校园建筑内进行了单调乏味的徒步行走。随后,他们报告了更多的积极情绪,并且对他们的情绪进行评分,例如感觉愉悦、活力、专注和自信,他们的评分结果比另一些人来的高:另外一些人花了同样的时间坐在同一校园内看照片人,或观看相同建筑内旅游的视频。

The mood-enhancing effect of walking was found even for a so-called “walking dread” condition in the second study, in which students were warned ahead of walking the building tour that they would have to write a two-page essay afterwards and discuss their essay’s contents (this was just to provoke dread, they didn’t really have to do it). Whereas students in the sitting condition (with no provocation of dread) showed reductions in their positive mood by the end of the study, the students in “walking dread” condition actually maintained their positive mood. This was despite the fact they said they expected their mood to drop by the end of the tour.

甚至在第二项研究中所谓的“行走恐惧”中也发现了散步对情绪的增强效果。在这项研究中,学生在步行参观这些建筑之前接受到了警告,这个警告要求他们写一份两页的文章, 然后讨论他们文章的内容(这只是为了引起恐慌,他们不会真的这样做)。然而,那些坐着的学生(未对他们进行可怕的挑衅)的情绪在研究结束时,表现出了积极情绪的降低,而“行走恐惧”状态下的学生却维持着他们的积极的情绪。尽管他们说,他们本来预料自己的情绪会在散步结束时下降。

The third and final study was the most tightly controlled. This time researcher-participant contact was kept to a minimum, with participants randomly allocated to different conditions and thereafter following instructions given by computer. Some students spent 10 minutes watching a Saatchi Gallery video alone while sitting on a treadmill, others spent the same time watching the video while standing on a treadmill, and the remainder watched the video while walking on the treadmill. The cover story was that the researchers were investigating the effects of proximity to gym equipment on people’s feelings. Once again, at the end, the students who’d spent time walking reported more positive mood scores than those who had been sitting or standing.

第三个、也是最后一个研究的控制是最严格的。这一次,研究参与者之间的相互接触被限定在最低水平,参与者被随机分配到了不同的测试情景之中,然后按照计算机给出的指令执行命令。有些学生花了10分钟独自坐在跑步机上观看萨奇画廊的视频,另外一些人花了同样的时间站在跑步机上看视频,而其余的人在跑步机上行走着观看视频。而用来掩饰研究目的表面的故事是:研究人员正在调查健身房设备对人们感觉的影响。再一次,研究的最后结果显示,在跑步机上行走的学生比坐着或站着的学生的积极情绪分数更高。

Miller and Krizan acknowledged some limitations of their research – for example, to maintain the cover story for the studies, they didn’t take any physiological measures from their participants. This makes it difficult to pinpoint the precise mechanism here for the observed effects. But the researchers believe they’ve made a breakthrough, concluding that their experiments “are the first to document a casual effect of routine ambulation on positive affect” (note that the effects here were strictly on positive feelings; negative mood feelings were unaffected).

Miller和Krizan承认了他们研究中的一些局限性,例如,为了维持用来掩饰研究目的的表面故事,他们没有对参与者进行任何生理指标的测量。这使得我们很难精确地确定观测到的效应。但是,研究者们认为他们已经取得了突破性进展,他们的实验“首次为日常活动对积极情绪产生了临时影响提供了证明”(注意到这里的影响完全是积极的情绪,不会影响消极的情绪)。

Miller and Krizan added: “Taken together our findings suggest that incidental ambulation has a more robust and pervasive influence on affect than previously thought” and that their results might even explain why – as shown by prior research – we are generally quite hopeless at predicting our future mood. “People may underestimate the extent to which just getting off their couch and going for a walk will benefit their mood as they focus on momentarily perceived barriers rather than eventual mood benefits.”

Miller和Krizan补充道:“将我们的研究综合起来发现,偶发性的活动对情感的影响比以前想象的更为强大和普遍,而且,他们的结果甚至可以解释为什么——正如前的研究表明的——对于预测我们未来的情绪,我们一般都很绝望。“人们可能低估了从沙发上走下来散步会有益于他们情绪的程度,因为他们把注意力暂时集中在知觉障碍上,而不是最终的情绪上。”

I’m just heading out for a stroll, but before I do, I should add that the new findings also appear to complement a study we reported on six years ago, which showed that our instinct is for idleness but that we’re happier when we’re busy and active.

我正要出去散步,但在我这样做之前,我要补充一点,新的发现似乎补充了我们六年前所做的一项研究,那项研究表明,我们的本能是懒惰的,但当我们忙碌而活跃的时候,我们会更快乐。

—Walking facilitates positive affect (even when expecting the opposite)-走路有助于积极的情绪(即使 与期望相反)

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TAG: 积极情绪 散步
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