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陈明 翻译 2017-5-10
Laura Petrecca
Why do we feel so lonely?心理学空间8F mi VsN
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Laura Petrecca , USA TODAY心理学空间6En6uX A\p
陈明 翻译
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oY)?Djo0Being lonely can cause you so much stress your body goes into fight-or-flight mode. 0心理学空间3I i3[q'wb+b

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$X&z T ['\#L9m;t0There are more ways than ever to connect with others — yet many of us know the hollow ache of loneliness.

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有很多的方式和他人联系-但我们许多人都知道孤独痛苦的疼痛。心理学空间#XL7?y K&b lQ[

/s)r,l@&m1o0Loneliness isn’t constrained by age, gender, marital status or job title. CEOs feel it. So do cubicle dwellers. As do new moms, granddads, recent college grads and elementary school students.

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Even royalty isn’t immune. Duchess Kate of Cambridge said in April that she has felt lonely and isolated as a mother.

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HF'\In1t^2J!I;k0And yes, some of those Facebook friends who continually post photos of bar outings and extended family gatherings may be quite lonely, too.心理学空间rgW-Q LW@V(M

oK$zZx(I0e|0是的,一些在Facebook经常张贴酒吧远足和大家庭聚会的照片的朋友也可能很孤独。心理学空间D6m+P Z^mJ*w

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The prevalence of loneliness "is surprisingly high," says John Cacioppo, director of the Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience at the University of Chicago, who has studied the topic extensively.

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sH%a0a,K2qM v0芝加哥大学的认知与社会神经科学中心主任John Cacioppo说:“孤独的盛行高得惊人。”。心理学空间xdd ^JMTBy


Loneliness can have negative effects on one's mental and physical health. (May is Mental Health Month.) As a society, we've put increased emphasis on emotional well-being, yet loneliness remains a major issue. Last week, the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging held a hearing on the effect of isolation and loneliness. Sen. Susan Collins, R-Maine, said, "The consequences of isolation and loneliness are severe — negative health outcomes, higher health care costs and even death."

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}K$](Z E"vfx0孤独会对人的身心健康产生负面影响。(5月是心理健康月)作为一个社会,我们已经把重点放在情感的福祉,但孤独仍然是一个重大问题。上周,美国参议院老龄问题特别委员会举行了孤立和孤独的影响听证会。参议员Susan Collins,r-maine说,“孤独和寂寞的后果是严重的负面的健康结果、更高的医疗成本、甚至死亡。”心理学空间!HkF#|N2S,u9x

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In 2015, U.S. Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, one of President Obama's appointees who was recently asked to step down, pointed out the health dangers that can come from "isolation, lack of meaning and a loss of self-worth."心理学空间xd&{T S0Wv7v

)r!I#B+mD-e(O0被奥巴马总统任命,最近被要求下台的美国外科医生Vivek Murthy,在2015年指出,健康的危险可能来自“隔离,缺乏意义和丧失自我价值。”心理学空间!Le)h gW

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What is loneliness, exactly? Most of us have felt it in some form or another. It's the feeling that arises when there is a gap between social interactions you want and reality. It's feeling separated, even alienated, and can last for a short stretch or a prolonged period of time. It's important to note that you can feel lonely "even when you are around other people,” Cacioppo says.心理学空间1wh dE^ y,T




Loneliness is an issue that spans all age groups in one way or another. In newly released data, the U.K.’s National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children says that in the past year, it counseled nearly 4,100 children and teens who grappled with loneliness. Some who needed help were as young as 6.心理学空间9xi|E"lz9NB'`df



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b7IG y.AI0"I’ve thought about ending my life because I think it’s pointless me being here,” said one anonymous 15-year-old in a transcript provided by the NSPCC. “I don’t feel like anyone cares about me, and I’m lonely all the time."

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“我想结束我的生命,因为我觉得,我在这里是毫无意义的,”NSPCC提供的一名15岁的孩子在匿名文本中写道“我不觉得有人关心我,我一直孤独。”心理学空间XLV#Y5bv o+A#dM

ROg RQs6|0A 16-year-old said, “I don’t feel like I fit in anywhere, and I have no friends. I hate being this unhappy, but I can’t control it. I feel so alone. Whenever I think about the future, I get scared that I’ll always be by myself because I’m not good-looking or funny enough.”

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That scary future of loneliness is a reality for many older adults. Almost half of Americans age 62 and up experience some degree of loneliness, according to a new AARP Foundation survey. Two in 10 say their loneliness is frequent.心理学空间1I1gKZ Zu~

4x5i L2b8a?:tJ0对于许多老年人来说,未来可怕的孤独是现实。几乎一半62岁以上的美国人有一定程度的孤独感,根据一项新的美国退休人员协会基金会的调查。10个人中有2个人说他们经常感到孤独。心理学空间C!N5K9S9K:W hdL


How we talk to each other for work and for play isn't helping心理学空间;p%h,aj;@dw n)Ct_

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我们谈论彼此的工作和游戏的方法是没有帮助的心理学空间:zl,m5Y c8B%i&J

O._!B1F2F0Our workload and work style can contribute to feelings of loneliness, says Jennifer Caudle, an osteopathic family physician and assistant professor at Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine.

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mhbPgC'F$R$xR0罗恩大学骨科医学院的骨科家庭医师和助理教授珍妮弗·考德(Jennifer Caudle)说,我们的工作量和工作风格会促进孤独感。心理学空间*^S/Hb]1PS U4t u

VN`BVeN He_o0Many of us pull long days, and after we leave, we look at email, read reports and review presentations rather than fully connect with friends and family. Nearly half of U.S. workers check email after they leave work, and 45% work during non-business hours, according to a CareerBuilder survey in 2016.心理学空间b1@`~GHW1Y

x-Q[Y;N8h&|X4bKMh0我们中的许多人拉了日子,我们下班后,我们看电子邮件,阅读报告和审查简报,而不是完全与朋友和家人连接。根据CareerBuilder调查2016,美国几乎一半工人在下班后检查电子邮件,45%工作在非工作期间。心理学空间|%Q et(B)F6H

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"Work does not stop anymore, it is always there for us," says Caudle, who notes that those working remotely from others can also feel isolated.心理学空间g6kurH

lI6[k F)p;d8b0\x0“做不完的工作一直在等着我们”Caudle说,从那些遥远地方工作的别人哪儿也能感到孤立。心理学空间7] R8a y;q g Q

D$_)N/U RHA+E1U0On days when she does't interact with students or patients, Caudle says she can feel it.


2|?"e f(EiMGj7T0Caudle说,在她不和学生或患者互动的日子里,她也能感觉到它。

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p!\*j"SF0"I can go all day and not communicate with a person directly," she says. "I‘m on my computer all day long, and sometimes at the end of the day, even though I’ve been productive, I feel a little empty."心理学空间)T7l(X#J5E,wzI


s7YUfv m6w G6iu0Technology and social media can play a part. We are increasingly adopting digital devices, and social media use has skyrocketed.心理学空间A8MPO*P7M


技术和社交媒体可以为孤独扮演一个角色。我们越来越多地采用数字设备,社交媒体的使用率直线上升。心理学空间Tf"\+F K;xI.H

i1`9@WF"C;e3V%h;Q0Though these tools can be helpful, digital communication often lacks the connection-building nuances that come with face-to-face interactions, says the University of Chicago’s Cacioppo.心理学空间)u@%I1`pYA'Db N


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“You don’t see their facial expressions,” he says. “You don’t hear their tone of voice.”

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Qm%Z)O5^N0“你看不到他们的面部表情,”他说。“你听不见他们的声音。”心理学空间,w?7PfK5y L#fi

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Even with Skype and FaceTime, “there are so many missing cues,” Cacioppo says.心理学空间C{"Xm DM

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j Gr+I6Y5~r9v0We can be our own worst enemy心理学空间@6b7C*ibEy6S

pN X,t x6ndq)Z0Risk factors for perceived or actual social isolation include living alone, being unmarried and having few friends, says Brigham Young University psychology and neuroscience professor Julianne Holt-Lunstad.


Brigham Young大学心理学和神经科学教授Julianne Holt-Lunstad说,感知的或实际的社会隔离的风险因素包括独居,未婚,没有什么朋友。心理学空间(o'gbIj6FDu'Ti

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Other factors include chronic health conditions and mobility impairments.

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:bMu n_)u0Lonely people can automatically put up their guard, which in turn can make it difficult to establish those longed-for connections, Cacioppo says.心理学空间D8c{&Ms0m



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et0P@d,qmp y0“When you feel isolated, you feel as if there is no one who you can trust,” he says. “The brain goes into self-preservation mode.”

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a'vNoYa B*Pm,M0他说:“当你感到孤独时,你会觉得似乎没有人可以信任.”。“大脑进入自我保护模式。”心理学空间~sC.uxL


The stigma that can come with admitting to loneliness means that we sometimes struggle silently. “Nobody wants to say, ‘Hey, I’m lonely,’” says Charlotte Yeh, chief medical officer of AARP Services.


承认孤独的耻辱意味着我们有时会默默挣扎。AARP服务公司首席医疗官Charlotte Yeh说“没有人想了想说,“嗨,我很孤独。”


!]6mbw klv[0If a lonely person does find a helpful resource, he or she isn’t likely to share it with others who could use it, she says, since that would mean admitting to feeling lonely in the first place.心理学空间;G2U-\l_-R:H2Q



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Feeling lonely? Do these things心理学空间 V{9_NQ`

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Pick up the phone and call someone. Go outside and take a walk. Spend more time interacting with others in person vs. on social media. There is no one answer — it can be complicated to address loneliness — but some small, proactive steps can help you feel better. If you feel your loneliness is severe and negatively impacting your mental health, there are places to go:心理学空间/]bzv$A

:I0ju,z aCc&i ^0拿起电话给某人打电话。出去走走。花更多时间与人互动与社交媒体。没有单一的答案——解决孤独可能是复杂的——但却是微小的的,积极的步骤可以帮助你感觉更好。如果你觉得你的孤独是严重的,负面影响你的心理健康,试着和他人保持连接吧。心理学空间s`%@SH


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