The confusion of these two things [i.e. the value set on competitive success and the occasion for shame] is encouraged by measuring Greek attitudes by the standard of a Christian . . . outlook.
That outlook associates morality simultaneously with benevolence, self-denial, and inner directedness or guilt (shame before God or oneself).
It sees the development of moral thought to this point as progress, and it tends to run together a number of different ideas which have been discarded – or at least rendered less reputable – by that progress.