作者: Greenberg, Leslie S / 11111次阅读 时间: 2012年10月22日
来源: Psychotherapy Vol 38(4), 2001, 380-384. 标签: empathy Empathy 共情


OT9W"?x$TK0Robert Elliott, Ph.D., Arthur C. Bohart, Ph.D.,

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2fG WI&vJ f a0Jeanne C. Watson, Ph.D., & Leslie S. Greenberg, Ph.D.

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8K4l6njg6I0Definition. Carl Rogers (1980, p. 85) defined empathy as: “the therapist’s sensitive ability and willingness to understand the client’s thoughts, feelings and struggles from the client’s point of view. [It is] this ability to see completely through the client’s eyes, to adopt his frame of reference....It means entering the private perceptual world of the other...being sensitive, moment by moment, to the changing felt meanings which flow in this other person....It means sensing meanings of which he or she is scarcely aware” (p. 142).


!}E h ZPx-yJ0Clinical Example. “Mark” is a 30-year-old man who came to psychotherapy complaining of pervasive anxiety. Five minutes into the first session, the following took place:


Client:I’m really in a panic (anxious, looking plaintively at the therapist). I feel anxious all the time. Sometimes it seems so bad I really worry that I’m completely falling apart. Nothing like this has ever happened to me before.心理学空间 b{)A)z+@iq9`

Qi9ZcfC0Therapist:So a real sense of vulnerability—kind of like, you don’t even know yourself anymore.心理学空间|'U"|0W nR

5X`UB/M-P%V]0Client:Yes! That’s it. I don’t know myself anymore. I feel totally lost, like a big cloud that just takes me over, and I can’t even find myself in it anymore. I don’t even know what I want, what I trust….I’m lost.心理学空间gT@,S9q/rQ2g.I

\J;|~:g0Therapist:Totally lost, like, “Where did Mark go? I can’t find myself anymore.”心理学空间"ASn;c6f!VP

#v#q!aT4TL]s0Client:No, I can’t (sadly, and thoughtfully).

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Meta-Analytic Review.We searched carefully for all English-language studies using a measure of therapist empathy to predict treatment outcome. We found 59 different samples of clients (from 57 studies), representing 3,599 clients and 224 separate effects.心理学空间!SD4@ U ]6~

NQ!_p/C1F'aH0Our meta-analysis resulted in an overall effect size of .30, a medium effect, between therapist empathy and client success. This effect size is about the same size as, or slightly larger than, previous analyses of the relationship between the alliance in individual therapy and treatment outcome.

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9mC S!{ Z|!ci0However, there was statistically significant, nonrandom variability across the effects (Cochrane’s Q = 205.8,p< .001), meaning that the empathy-outcome relation is not consistent and is affected by other factors. To investigate these sources of variability, we looked at a range of possible moderators. We found that empathy predicted treatment outcome consistently across different theoretical orientations (e.g., CBT, humanistic), treatment formats (individua l, group), and levels of client problem severity. It was strongest for client- and observer-rated empathy. Empathy also appeared to predict outcome better for less experienced therapists. 14心理学空间ex5R,R8@3l,h

,C x}9\6q_1I0Therapeutic Practices心理学空间E,X-s%S9A|^L"i

|X)Ji!]p'n0♦ It is important for psychotherapists to make efforts to understand their clients’ experiences and to demonstrate this understanding through responses that address the client needs as the client perceives them.心理学空间+AcK aAM i S\V


♦ Empathic therapists do not parrot clients’ words back or reflect only the content of those words; instead, they understand overall goals and moment-to-moment experiences.心理学空间3B5o3Mh*f Q$n

zLns n-YB\Ea(`m0♦ Empathic responses can take many forms, including straightforward responses that convey understanding of client experience, but also responses that validate the client’s perspective, that try to bring the client’s experience to life using evocative language, or that aim at what is implicit but not yet expressed in words.心理学空间*NX D)yr9C

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♦ Therapists should neither assume that they are mind readers nor that their experience of understanding the client will be matched by clients feeling understood.


L}:{f$I$DQ&B9L3\GR0♦ Finally, because research has shown empathy to be inseparable from the other relational conditions, therapists should seek to offer empathy in a context of authentic caring for the client.

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References心理学空间JR g Q!I4|

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Bohart, A. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (Eds.). (1997).Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.心理学空间Ib\;`2sm

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Elliott, R., Bohart, A.C., Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (2011). Empathy. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.),Psychotherapy relationships that work(2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

TAG: empathy Empathy 共情
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