五、自我同一性对角色混乱
作者: 《童年与社会》 / 1348次阅读 时间: 2020年4月09日
标签: 角色混乱 自我同一性
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五、自我同一性对角色混乱IDENTITY v. ROLE CONFUSION

With the establishment of a good initial relationship to the world of skills and tools, and with the advent of puberty, child hood proper comes to an end. Youth begins. But in puberty and adolescence all samenesses and continuities relied on earlier are more or less questioned again, because of a rapidity of body growth which equals that of early childhood and because of the new addition of genital maturity. The growing and developing youths, faced with this physiological revolution within them, and with tangible adult tasks ahead of them are now primarily concerned with what they appear to be in the eyes of others as compared with what they feel they are, and with the question of how to connect the roles and skills cultivated earlier with the occupational prototypes of the day. In their search for a new sense of continuity and sameness, adolescents have to re-fight many of the battles of earlier years, even though to do so they must artificially appoint perfectly well-meaning people to play , the roles of adversaries; and they are ever ready to install lasting idols and ideals as guardians of a final identity.

在建立起同技术与工具世界的最初关系后,青春期即将到来,而童年就要真正结束了。在青春期,因为身体的第二次快速发展以及性器官的成熟,早期获得的一致性和连续性受到了质疑。成长与发展中的年轻人,面对体内的生理巨变和成人目标,开始关心——同自我评价相比——他人对他们的评价,以及如何将早先习得的角色和技能同时代的职业标准联系起来。在获得新的连续性和一致性中,他们必须和早年战斗过的“敌人”重新开战,即便这意味着他们必须让好人来扮演敌人的角色。他们已经准备好在头脑中装入某些偶像和理念,以便保卫最终的身份。

The integration now taking place in the form of ego identity. is, as pointed out, more than the sum of the childhood identifications. It is the accrued experience of the ego's ability to integrate all identifications with the vicissitudes of the libido, with the aptitudes developed out of endowment, and with the opportunities offered in SOCial roles. The sense of ego identity, then, is the accruaI confidence that the inner sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others, as evidenced in the tangible promise of a 'career'.

这种以自我同一性的形式存在的身份整合远大于个体在童年时期获得的各种身份的简单相加。这是一种自我将所有身份同性欲的变迁、后天能力以及社会角色所提供的机遇整合为一体的经验的积累。自我同一性是一种因个体内在的一致性和持续性与他人对他的一致性和持续性的看法相匹配而产生的自信,这在切实的“职业”承诺中得到了证实。

The danger of this stage is role confusion.t Where this is based on a strong previous doubt as to one's sexual identity, delinquent and outright psychotic episodes are not uncommon. If diagnosed and treated correctly, these incidents do not have the same fatal significance which they have at other ages. In most instances, however, it is the inability to settle on an occupational identity which disturbs individual young people. To keep themtogether selves they temporarily overidentify, to the point of apparent complete loss of identity, with the heroes of cliques and crowds. This initiates the stage of 'falling in love', which is by no means entirely, or even primarily, a sexual matter - except where the mores demand it. To a considerable extent adolescent love is an attempt to arrive at a definition of one's identity by projecting one's diffused ego-image on another and by seeing it thus reflected and gradually clarified. This is why so much of young love is conversation.

这一阶段的危险是角色混淆。[2]当它基于一种对性身份的强烈怀疑时,个体就会出现过失与精神病的彻底发作。如果得到正确的诊断和对待,这些事件不会出现它们在其他年龄段所造成的重大影响。在大部分实例中,没有能力获得职业身份给年轻人带来了困扰。为了使自我不致破裂,个体同大众英雄产生了过度认同,甚至达到表面上完全丧失个性的程度。这是“坠入爱河”阶段的开始,虽然绝不是出于性的原因。青年之爱是一种试图通过将自己弥散性的自我意象投射到他人身上,并观察它所反映和澄清的事实,来明晰个人身份的尝试。这便是为何年轻人的爱往往主要是对话。

Young people can also be remarkably clannish, and cruel intheir exclusion of all those who are 'different', in skin colour orcultural background, in tastes and gifts, and often in such pettyaspects of dress and gesture as have been temporarily selectedas the signs of an in-grouper or out-grouper. It is important tounderstand (which does not mean condone or participate in)such intolerance as a defence against a sense of identity confusion.For adolescents not only help one another temporarilythrough much discomfort by forming cliques and by stereotypingthemselves, their ideals, and their enemies; they alsoperversely test each other's capacity to pledge fidelity. Thereadiness for such testing also explains the appeal which simpleand cruel totalitarian doctrines have on the minds of the youthof such countries and classes as have lost or are losing theirgroup identities (feudal, agrarian, tribal, national) and faceworld-wide industrialization, emancipation, and wider communication.

年轻人也会非常排外,并对所有那些被他们排除出去的“不同”——无论是皮肤颜色、文化背景、品味或天赋的不同,还是一些穿衣风格和姿势的不同——之人抱以残酷的态度。理解(却并不意味着赦免或参与)这种偏激是个体避免产生角色混淆的防御手段。青少年不仅会通过塑造群体和定义他们的自我、理想以及敌人来实现互相帮助,而且会故意测试彼此表明忠诚的能力。这也解释了为什么简单和残忍的集权主义会对那些失去了或正在失去他们的群体特征——无论是封建的特征,还是农业的、部落的、民族的特征——并面对世界范围内的工业化、解放和交流的年轻人具有如此大的吸引力。

The adolescent mind is essentially a mind of the moratorium, a psychosocial stage between childhood and adulthood, and between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be developed by the adult. It is an ideological mind - and, indeed, it is the ideological outlook of a society that speaks most clearly to the adolescent who is eager to be affirmed by his peers, and is ready to be confirmed by rituals, creeds, and programmes which at the same time define what is evil, uncanny, and inimical. In searching for the social values which guide identity, one therefore confronts the problems of ideology and aristocracy, both in their widest possible sense which connotes that within a defined world image and a predestined course of history, the best people will come to rule and rule develops the best in people. In order not to become cynically or apathetically lost, young people must somehow be able to convince themselves that those who succeed in their anticipated adult world thereby shoulder the obligation of being the best. We will discuss later the dangers which emanate from human ideals harnessed to the management of super-machines, be they guided by nationalistic or international, communist or capitalist ideologies. In the last part of this book we shall discuss the way in which the revolutions of our day attempt to solve and also to exploit the deep need of youth to re-define its identity in an industrialized world.

青少年的精神基本上处于一个延缓偿付期,这是一个处于童年和成年之间,孩子们所学到的道德观同成年人发展出的伦理学之间的心理社会阶段。它是一种意识形态上的精神,并且是社会——清晰地支持了那些渴望得到同辈的承认,准备好被仪式、信条和计划所证实的年轻人——在意识形态上的观点。在探寻引导同一性发展的社会价值观时,个体会遇到意识形态和特权阶级的问题。它们都有如下含义:在确定的世界图像和注定的历史道路中,最优秀的个体会统治世界,而统治也使这些人更加优秀。为了不成为那些冷嘲热讽或无动于衷的失败者,年轻人必须以某种方式说服自己,那些在成人世界中成功的人也必须肩负作为精英的责任。我们在接下来会讨论源于某种人类理念的危险,这种理念希望超级机器般的管理机构来治理世界,无论这机构是以民族性还是国际性、共产主义还是资本主义的意识形态作为指导。在这本书的最后一部分,我们会讨论当今时代的革命如何利用年轻人试图在工业化社会中找到新身份的深切需要。

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TAG: 角色混乱 自我同一性
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