作者: 《儿童与社会》 / 2939次阅读 时间: 2020年4月07日


Thus the inner stage seems all set for 'entrance into life', except that life must first be school life, whether school is field or jungle or classroom. The child must forget past hopes and wishes, while his exuberant imagination is tamed and harnessed to the laws of impersonal things - even the three Rs. For before the child, psychologically already a rudimentary parent, can become a biological parent, he must begin to be a worker and potentia provider. With the oncoming latency period, the normally advanced child forgets, or rather sublimates, the necessity to 'make' people by direct attack or to become papa and mama in a hurry: he now learns to win recognition by producing things.He has mastered the ambulatory field and the organ modes. Hehas experienced a sense of finality regarding the fact that there isno workable future within the womb of his family, and thusbecomes ready to apply himself to given skills and tasks, whichgo far beyond the mere playful expression of his organ modes orthe pleasure in the function of his limbs. He develops a sense ofindustry - i.e., he adjusts himself to the inorganic laws of thetool world. He can become an eager and absorbed unit of aproductive situation. To bring a productive situation to completionis an aim which gradually supersedes the whims andwishes of play. His ego boundaries include his tools and skills:the work principle (Ives Hendrick) teaches him the pleasure ofwork completion by steady attention and persevering diligence.In all cultures, at this stage, children receive some systematicinstruction, although, as we saw in the chapter on American. Indians, it is by no means always in the kind of school whichliterate people must organize around special teachers who havelearned how to teach literacy. In preliterate people and in nonliterate pursuits much is learned from adults who becometeachers by dint of gift and inclination rather than by appointment andperhaps the greatest amount is learned from olderchildren. Thus the fundamentals of technology are developed, asthe child becomes ready to handle the utensils, the tools, and theweapons used by the big people. Literate people, with morespecialized careers, must prepare the child by teaching him thingswhich first of all make him literate, the widest basic educationfor the greatest number of possible careers. The more confusingspecialization becomes, however, the more indistinct are theeventual goals of initiative j and the more complicated socialreality, the vaguer are the father's and mother's role in it. Schoolseems to be a culture all by itself, with its own goals and limits, its achievements and disappointments.


The child's danger, at this stage, lies in a sense of inadequacy and inferiority. If he despairs of his tools and skills or of his status among his tool partners, he may be discouraged from mennncaltJ'lon with them and with a section of the tool world. To lose the hope of such 'industrial' association may pull him back to the more isolated, less tool-conscious familial rivalry of the oedipal time. The child despairs of his equipment in thetool world and in anatomy, and considers himself doomed to mediocrity or inadequacy. It is at this point that wider society becomes significant in its ways of admittmg the child to an understanding of meaningful roles in its technology and economy. Many a child's development is disrupted when family life has failed to prepare him for school life, or when school life fails to sustain the promises of earlier stages.


Reagarding the period of a developing sense of industry, r have referred to outer and znner hmdrances in the use of new capacities but not to aggravations of new human drives, nor to submerged rages resulting from their frustration. This stage differs from the earlier ones in that it is not a swing from an inner upheaval to a new mastery. Freud calls it the latency stage because violent drives are normally dormant. But it is only a lull before the storm of puberty, when all the earlier drives re-emerge in a new combination, to be brought under the dominance of genitality.


On the other hand, this is socially a most decisive stage: since industry involves doing things beside and with others, a first sense of division oflabour and of differential opportunity, that is, a sense of the technologtcal ethos of a culture, develops at this time. We have pointed in the last section to the danger threatening individual and society where the schoolchild begins to feel that the colour of his skin, the background of his parents, or the fashion of his clothes rather than his wish and his will to learn will decide his worth as an apprentice, and thus his sense of identity - to which we must now turn. But there is another, more fundamental danger, namely man's restriction of himself and constriction of his horizons to include only his work to which, so the Book says, he has been sentenced after his expulsion from Paradise. If he accepts work as his only obligation, and 'what works' as his only criterion of worthwhileness, he may become the conformist and thoughtless slave of his technology and of those who are in a position to exploit it.


«三、主动对内疚 12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson
《12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson》