三、主动对内疚
作者: 《儿童与社会》 / 769次阅读 时间: 2020年4月07日
标签: 内疚 主动
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三、主动对内疚INITIATIVE 'V. GUILT

There is in every child at every stage a new miracle of vigorousunfolding, which constitutes a new hope and a new responsibilityfor all. Such is the sense and the pervading quality of initiative.The criteria for all these senses and qualities are the same: acrisis, more or less beset with fumbling and fear, is resolved, inthat the child suddenly seems to 'grow together' both in hisperson and in his body. He appears 'more himself', more loving,relaxed and brighter in his judgement, more activated andactivating. He is in free possession of a surplus of energy whichpermits him to forget failures quickly and to approach whatseems desirable (even if it also seems uncertain and evendangerous) with undiminished and more accurate direction.Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of undertaking'. planningand 'attacking' a task for the sake of being active and on themove, where before self-will, more often than not, inspired actsof defiance or, at any rate, protested independence.

每个儿童在每个阶段都会出现充满活力的特性,这也促进了新的希望和新的责任的诞生。这是一种主动性。在某一时刻,孩子们或多或少带着恐惧,内外都“成长”了,并且解决了某种危机。他们看上去“更像他们自己”,更有爱,放松且明智,并且更加充满活力。他们能量过剩,这允许他们很快忘记失败,并靠近那些看起来值得向往的事物(哪怕它看上去同样充满了不确定性和危险性)。主动性在自主性的基础上增加了承担、计划和执行任务的品质,从而显得活跃和“在行动中”。

I know that the very word 'initiative', to many, has anAmerican, and industrial, connotation. Yet, initiative is a necessarypart of every act, and man needs a sense of initiative forwhatever he learns and does, from fruit-gathering to a system ofenterprise.

我知道“主动性”这个词对于很多人来说有着美国化和工业化的内涵。但是,主动性是每一行为的必要组成部分。人们在任何学习和行动——从水果采摘到企业系统运作——中都离不开主动性。

The ambulatory stage and that of infantile genitality add to the inventory of basic social modalities that of 'making', first in the sense of 'being on the make'. There is no simpler, stronger word for it; it suggests pleasure in attack and conquest. In the boy, the emphasis remains on phallic-intrusive modes; in the girl it turns to modes of 'catching' in more aggressive forms of snatching or in the milder form of making oneself attractive and endearing.

婴儿性欲为基本社交形式增加了“做”的含义,而这一含义首先意味着“在做中”。没有更简单有力的单词可以描述它,它隐含着在攻击和征服获得快乐的意思。对于男孩来说,“做”的重点是阴茎侵入模式。对于女孩来说,重点则是以掠夺形式或者以让自己更具魅力和更加惹人喜爱的形式去“俘获”他人的模式。

The danger of this stage is a sense of guilt over the goals contemplated and the acts initiated in one's exuberant enjoyment of new locomotor and mental power: acts of aggressive manipulation and coercion which soon go far beyond the executive capacity of organism and mind and therefore call for an energetic halt to one's contemplated initiative. While autonomy concentrates on keeping potential rivals out, and therefore can lead to jealous rage most often directed against encroachments by younger siblings, initiative brings with it anticipatory rivalry with those who have been there first and may, therefore, occupy with their superior equipment the field towards which one's initiative is directed. Infantile jealousy and rivalry, those often embittered and yet essentially futile attempts at demarcating a sphere of unquestioned privilege, now come to a climax in a final contest for a favoured position with the mother; the usual failure leads to resignation, guilt, and anxiety. The child indulges in fantasies of being a giant and a tiger, but in his dreams he runs in terror for dear life. This, then, is the stage of the 'castration complex', the intensified fear of finding the (now. energetically erotized) genitals harmed as a punishment for the fantasies attached to their excitement.

这一阶段的危险在于:因在预期目标以及发起的行为中享受新的运动能力和精神力量而产生内疚。带有侵略性和强迫性的行为会远远超过身体与精神的实行能力,因此需要遏制个体的主动性。个体在自主性的驱使下会集中精力排除潜在的对手,并将嫉妒的怒火指向年幼的同胞们,而在主动性的驱使下,个体把那些首先到达并以装备优势占据某些领域——这些领域恰好是个体的主动性指向的地方——的人视为竞争对手。婴儿的嫉妒和竞争性,以及在某一领域享有特权的充满怨恨且徒劳的尝试,最终在和同胞们争夺与母亲的最佳位置时达到了顶点。失败导致了放弃、罪恶和焦虑。孩子们满足于作为巨人或者老虎的幻想,但在梦境中他们因恐惧而拼命逃跑。这便是“阉割情结”——对自己因不恰当的幻想而不得不接受损害生殖器的惩罚的强烈恐惧——出现的阶段。

Infantile sexuality and incest taboo, castration complex and superego all unite here to bring about that specifically human crisis during which the child must turn from an exclusive, pregenital attachment to his parents to the slow process of becoming a parent, a carrier of tradition. Here the most fateful split and transformation in the emotional powerhouse occurs, a split between potential human glory and potential total destruction. For here the child becomes forever divided in himself. The instinct fragments which before had enhanced the growth of his infantile body and mind now become divided into an infantile set which perpetuates the exuberance of growth potentials, and a parental set which supports and increases self-observation, self-guidance, and self-punishment.婴儿的性欲同乱伦禁忌、阉割情结以及超我结合在一起制造了一个人类危机。在这个危机中,他们必须从对父母的前生殖期依附中走出来,逐渐成为传统的载体。这是潜在的人类荣耀与毁灭之间的分裂。从此,儿童的自我永远分裂开来。之前那些促进婴儿身体和头脑成长的天性碎片如今分成了两部分:婴儿的部分仍保持着旺盛的生长潜能,父母的部分则促进了自我观察、自我引导和自我惩罚的发展。

The problem, again, is one of mutual regulation. Where the child, now so ready to overmanipulate himself, can gradually develop a sense of moral responsibility, where he can gain some insight into the institutions, functions, and roles which will permit his responsible participation, he will find pleasurable accomplishment in wielding tools and weapons, in manipulating meaningful toys - and in caring for younger children.

这又是一个相互调节的问题。婴儿现在已经准备好了过度操纵自我。他们逐步发展出一种道德责任感,获得了一些关于制度、职责和角色——允许他们负责地参与其中——的洞察力。他们会在挥舞工具和武器中,在操纵富有含义的玩具中,以及在照顾更小的孩子中找到愉悦的成就感。

Naturally, the parental set is at first infantile in nature: thefact that human conscience remains partially infantile throughoutlife is the core of human tragedy. For the superego of thechild can be primitive, cruel, and uncompromising, as may beobserved in instances where children overcontrol and overconstrictthemselves to the point of self-obliteration; where theydevelop an over-obedience more literal than the one the parenthas wished to exact; or where they develop deep regressionsand lasting resentments because the parents themselves do notseem to live up to the new conscience. One of the deepestconflicts in life is the hate for a parent who served as the modeland the executor of the superego, but who (in some form) wasfound trying to get away with the very transgressions which thechild can no longer tolerate in himself. The suspiciousness andevasiveness which is thus mixed in with the all-or-nothingquality of the superego, this organ of moral tradition, makesmoral (in the sense of moralistic) man a great potential dangerto his own ego - and to that of his fellow men.

婴儿身上父母的部分在本质上是幼稚的。事实上,人类意识在一生当中都保持着一定的稚性,这是人类悲剧的核心。婴儿的超我可以显得原始、残酷和决不妥协,这一点我们可以在婴儿对自己的过度控制以及过度约束中看出。他们由此发展出一种过度服从——程度甚至比父母期望和要求的还要强烈——的态度,或者出现严重的退行和持续的愤恨,因为父母看上去背弃了新的道德观。婴儿最深切的冲突之一是恨父母。在婴儿看来,父母本应担当起模范以及超我的执行者,但他们却试图从违规中侥幸逃脱,这是婴儿所不能容忍的。混入了超我的全或无特性中的疑心和逃避,使有道德的人成为对自我和他人有潜在危险的存在。

In adult pathology, the residual conflict over initiative is expressed either in hysterical denial, which causes the repression of the wish or the abrogation of its executive 01 gan by paralysis, inhibition, or impotence; or in overcompensatory showing off, in which the sacred individual, so eager to 'duck" instead 'sticks his neck out'. Then also a plunge into psychosomatic disease is now common. It is as if the culture had made a man over-advertise himself and so identify with his own advertisement that only disease can offer him escape.

在成人病理学中,因主动性而产生的冲突可以通过歇斯底里式否认——会压抑意愿或者让器官瘫痪、受抑制或者衰弱——来表达,还可以通过过度补偿式炫耀——如此渴望“逃避”的个体,却“伸出了脖子”——得到表达。此外,这种冲突也可能会通过突然出现身心失调疾病得到表达。这就像文化令一个人过度宣传自己,并让他与自己宣传的形象产生认同,以至于只有疾病才能让他摆脱。

But here, again, we must not think only of individual psychopathology, but of the inner powerhouse of rage \\hich must be submerged at this stage, as some of the fondest hopes and the wildest fantasies are repressed and inhibited. The resulting self-righteousness - often the principal reward for goodness - can later be most intolerantly turned against others in the form of persistent moralistic surveillance, so that the prohibition rather than the guidance of initiative becomes the dominant endeavour. On the other hand, even moral man's initiative is apt-to burst the boundaries of self-restriction, permitting him to do to others, in his or in other lands, what he would neither do nor tolerate being done in his own home.

在这里,我们不能只考虑精神病理学,还要考虑在这一阶段必须被压抑的愤怒。接下来,在压抑中变得自以为是的个体会以道德主义之名监督他人。对于主动权的禁止,而不是指引,占据了主导。从另一方面来说,甚至连道德之人的主动性都倾向于毁灭自我约束的边界,允许他们在其他地方去做那些他们绝不会在自己家中做的事情。

In view of the dangerous potentials of man's long childhood, it is well to look back at the blueprint of the life-stages and to the possibilities of guiding the young of the race while they are young. And here we note that according to the wisdom of the ground plan the child is at no time more ready to learn quickly and avidly, to become bigger in the sense of sharing obligation and performance, than during this period of his development. He is eager and able to make things cooperatively, to combine with other children for the purpose of constructing and planning, and he is willing to profit from teachers and to emulate ideal prototypes. He remains, of course, identified with the parent of the same sex, but for the present he looks for opportunities where work-identification seems to promise a field of initiative without too much infantile conflict or oedipal guilt and a more realistic identification based on a spirit of equality experienced in doing things together. At any rate, the 'oedipal' stage results not only in the oppressive establishment of a moral sense restricting the horizon of the permissible; it also sets the direction towards the possible and the tangible which permits the dreams of early childhood to be attached to the goals of an active adult life. Social institutions, therefore, offer children of this age an economic ethos, in the form of ideal adults recognizable by their uniforms and their functions, and fascinating enough to replace the heroes of picture book and fairy tale.

在了解了人类漫长童年的危险性后,我们最好对人生各个阶段的“蓝图”进行回顾,在儿童尚且年幼的时候指引他们。在人类的生命周期图中,我们注意到儿童根本没什么时间来快速学习,从而在分享责任和成就的意识上更进一步。他们渴望并有能力与他人合作,出于构建和规划的目的而同其他儿童联合起来。他们希望从老师那里获益,模仿理想的原型。他们与同性别的父母产生认同。但就目前而言,他渴望在某处找到机遇,那里能够保证主动性、没有太多的幼稚冲突或者俄狄浦斯内疚,能够获得更加现实的基于平等精神——在合作中产生——的认同。无论如何,“俄狄浦斯”阶段不仅导致了一种道德感——界定了许可范围——的建立,而且设定了儿童早期的梦境与积极的成年生活目标产生联系的可能性方向。因此,社会组织通过理想成人(他们的身份可根据他们的制服和职责得到辨识,他们的魅力要大到足以让他们取代图画书和童话中的英雄在儿童心中的地位),向这个年龄的儿童提供了一种经济精神。

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TAG: 内疚 主动
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