作者: 《儿童与社会》 / 3000次阅读 时间: 2020年4月07日
标签: 内疚 主动


There is in every child at every stage a new miracle of vigorousunfolding, which constitutes a new hope and a new responsibilityfor all. Such is the sense and the pervading quality of initiative.The criteria for all these senses and qualities are the same: acrisis, more or less beset with fumbling and fear, is resolved, inthat the child suddenly seems to 'grow together' both in hisperson and in his body. He appears 'more himself', more loving,relaxed and brighter in his judgement, more activated andactivating. He is in free possession of a surplus of energy whichpermits him to forget failures quickly and to approach whatseems desirable (even if it also seems uncertain and evendangerous) with undiminished and more accurate direction.Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of undertaking'. planningand 'attacking' a task for the sake of being active and on themove, where before self-will, more often than not, inspired actsof defiance or, at any rate, protested independence.


I know that the very word 'initiative', to many, has anAmerican, and industrial, connotation. Yet, initiative is a necessarypart of every act, and man needs a sense of initiative forwhatever he learns and does, from fruit-gathering to a system ofenterprise.


The ambulatory stage and that of infantile genitality add to the inventory of basic social modalities that of 'making', first in the sense of 'being on the make'. There is no simpler, stronger word for it; it suggests pleasure in attack and conquest. In the boy, the emphasis remains on phallic-intrusive modes; in the girl it turns to modes of 'catching' in more aggressive forms of snatching or in the milder form of making oneself attractive and endearing.


The danger of this stage is a sense of guilt over the goals contemplated and the acts initiated in one's exuberant enjoyment of new locomotor and mental power: acts of aggressive manipulation and coercion which soon go far beyond the executive capacity of organism and mind and therefore call for an energetic halt to one's contemplated initiative. While autonomy concentrates on keeping potential rivals out, and therefore can lead to jealous rage most often directed against encroachments by younger siblings, initiative brings with it anticipatory rivalry with those who have been there first and may, therefore, occupy with their superior equipment the field towards which one's initiative is directed. Infantile jealousy and rivalry, those often embittered and yet essentially futile attempts at demarcating a sphere of unquestioned privilege, now come to a climax in a final contest for a favoured position with the mother; the usual failure leads to resignation, guilt, and anxiety. The child indulges in fantasies of being a giant and a tiger, but in his dreams he runs in terror for dear life. This, then, is the stage of the 'castration complex', the intensified fear of finding the (now. energetically erotized) genitals harmed as a punishment for the fantasies attached to their excitement.


Infantile sexuality and incest taboo, castration complex and superego all unite here to bring about that specifically human crisis during which the child must turn from an exclusive, pregenital attachment to his parents to the slow process of becoming a parent, a carrier of tradition. Here the most fateful split and transformation in the emotional powerhouse occurs, a split between potential human glory and potential total destruction. For here the child becomes forever divided in himself. The instinct fragments which before had enhanced the growth of his infantile body and mind now become divided into an infantile set which perpetuates the exuberance of growth potentials, and a parental set which supports and increases self-observation, self-guidance, and self-punishment.婴儿的性欲同乱伦禁忌、阉割情结以及超我结合在一起制造了一个人类危机。在这个危机中,他们必须从对父母的前生殖期依附中走出来,逐渐成为传统的载体。这是潜在的人类荣耀与毁灭之间的分裂。从此,儿童的自我永远分裂开来。之前那些促进婴儿身体和头脑成长的天性碎片如今分成了两部分:婴儿的部分仍保持着旺盛的生长潜能,父母的部分则促进了自我观察、自我引导和自我惩罚的发展。

The problem, again, is one of mutual regulation. Where the child, now so ready to overmanipulate himself, can gradually develop a sense of moral responsibility, where he can gain some insight into the institutions, functions, and roles which will permit his responsible participation, he will find pleasurable accomplishment in wielding tools and weapons, in manipulating meaningful toys - and in caring for younger children.


Naturally, the parental set is at first infantile in nature: thefact that human conscience remains partially infantile throughoutlife is the core of human tragedy. For the superego of thechild can be primitive, cruel, and uncompromising, as may beobserved in instances where children overcontrol and overconstrictthemselves to the point of self-obliteration; where theydevelop an over-obedience more literal than the one the parenthas wished to exact; or where they develop deep regressionsand lasting resentments because the parents themselves do notseem to live up to the new conscience. One of the deepestconflicts in life is the hate for a parent who served as the modeland the executor of the superego, but who (in some form) wasfound trying to get away with the very transgressions which thechild can no longer tolerate in himself. The suspiciousness andevasiveness which is thus mixed in with the all-or-nothingquality of the superego, this organ of moral tradition, makesmoral (in the sense of moralistic) man a great potential dangerto his own ego - and to that of his fellow men.


In adult pathology, the residual conflict over initiative is expressed either in hysterical denial, which causes the repression of the wish or the abrogation of its executive 01 gan by paralysis, inhibition, or impotence; or in overcompensatory showing off, in which the sacred individual, so eager to 'duck" instead 'sticks his neck out'. Then also a plunge into psychosomatic disease is now common. It is as if the culture had made a man over-advertise himself and so identify with his own advertisement that only disease can offer him escape.


But here, again, we must not think only of individual psychopathology, but of the inner powerhouse of rage \\hich must be submerged at this stage, as some of the fondest hopes and the wildest fantasies are repressed and inhibited. The resulting self-righteousness - often the principal reward for goodness - can later be most intolerantly turned against others in the form of persistent moralistic surveillance, so that the prohibition rather than the guidance of initiative becomes the dominant endeavour. On the other hand, even moral man's initiative is apt-to burst the boundaries of self-restriction, permitting him to do to others, in his or in other lands, what he would neither do nor tolerate being done in his own home.


In view of the dangerous potentials of man's long childhood, it is well to look back at the blueprint of the life-stages and to the possibilities of guiding the young of the race while they are young. And here we note that according to the wisdom of the ground plan the child is at no time more ready to learn quickly and avidly, to become bigger in the sense of sharing obligation and performance, than during this period of his development. He is eager and able to make things cooperatively, to combine with other children for the purpose of constructing and planning, and he is willing to profit from teachers and to emulate ideal prototypes. He remains, of course, identified with the parent of the same sex, but for the present he looks for opportunities where work-identification seems to promise a field of initiative without too much infantile conflict or oedipal guilt and a more realistic identification based on a spirit of equality experienced in doing things together. At any rate, the 'oedipal' stage results not only in the oppressive establishment of a moral sense restricting the horizon of the permissible; it also sets the direction towards the possible and the tangible which permits the dreams of early childhood to be attached to the goals of an active adult life. Social institutions, therefore, offer children of this age an economic ethos, in the form of ideal adults recognizable by their uniforms and their functions, and fascinating enough to replace the heroes of picture book and fairy tale.


TAG: 内疚 主动
«二、自主对羞耻、怀疑 12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson
《12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson》