二、自主对羞耻、怀疑
作者: 埃里克森 / 748次阅读 时间: 2020年4月05日
来源: 《童年与社会》 标签: 怀疑 羞耻 羞愧 自主
二、自主对羞耻、怀疑 作 者:爱利克·埃里克森
出 版:世界图书 2018-1
书 号:9787519239923
原 价:¥88.00元
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二、自主羞愧、怀疑AUTONOMY v. SHAME AND DOUBT

In describing the growth and the crises of the human person as a senes of alternative basic attitudes such as trust vs. mistrust, we take recourse to the term a 'sense of', although, like a 'sense of health', or a 'sense of being unwell', such 'senses' pervade surface and depth, consciousness and the unconscious. They are, then, at the same time,ways of experiencing accessible to introspection;ways of behaving, observable by others;andunconscious inner states determinable by test and analysis. It is important to keep these three dimensions in mind, as we proceed.

将人的发展和危机描述为一系列可选择的基本态度,比如信任或不信任,我们需要采用“……的感觉”这一表述,虽然类似于“健康的感觉”或者“不适的感觉”这类的“感觉”遍及表面和内里、意识潜意识。它们同时也是一些和内省有关的体验方式;他人可观察到的行为方式;以及可被测验和分析的无意识内心状态。请牢记这三方面。

Muscular maturation sets the stage for experimentation with two simultaneous sets of social modalities: holding on and letting go. As is the case with all of these modalities, their basic conflicts can lead in the end to either hostile or benign expectations and attitudes. Thus, to hold can become a destructive and cruel retaining or restraining, and it can become a pattern of care: to have and to hold. To let go, too, can turn into an inimical letting loose of destructive forces, or it can become a relaxed 'to let pass' and 'to let be'.

肌肉的成熟度为实验两组社交形式——保持与排出——提供了基础。这些社交形式的基本冲突可能导致好的或不好的期望与态度。因此,保持可能会成为一种破坏性的、残酷的保留和束缚,也可能成为一种在乎的模式——拥有并占据。放手可能会转为一种对破坏性力量的放任,也可能变成某种“不追究”和“不干涉”的宽容。

Outer control at this stage, therefore, must be firmly reassuring. The infant must come to feel that the basic faith in existence which is the lasting treasure saved from the rages of the oral stage, will not be jeopardized by this about-face of his, this sudden violent wish to have a choice, to appropriate demandingly, and to eliminate stubbornly. Firmness must protect him against the potential anarchy of his as yet untrained sense of discrimination, his inability to hold on and to let go with discretion. As his environment encourages him to 'stand on his own feet', it must protect him against meaningless and arbitrary experiences of shame and of early doubt.

因此,在这一阶段的外在控制必须能带来安心。婴儿会开始觉得,基本信任——这笔在口欲期的愤怒中幸存下来的财富——不会受到他自身希望有选择、可以强占、排斥的粗暴想法的损害。这种安心必须可以保护婴儿不受自己尚不成熟的辨别能力——是保持还是放手——的影响。当环境鼓励他们“以自己的双足站立”时,这种安心必须保护他免于体验到无意义的、变幻无常的羞愧和怀疑

The latter danger is the one best known to us. For if denied the gradual and well-guided experience of the autonomy of free choice (or if, indeed, weakened by an initial loss of trust) the child will turn against himself all his urge to discriminate and to manipulate. He will overmanipulate himself, he will develop a precocious conscience. Instead of taking possession of things in order to test them by purposeful repetition, he will become obsessed by his own repetitiveness. By such obsessive ness, of course, he then learns to repossess the environment and to gain power by stubborn and minute control, where he could not find large-scale mutual regulation. Such hollow Victory is the infantile model for a compulsion neurosis. It is also the infantile source of later attempts in adult life to govern by the letter, rather than by the spirit.

我们熟知后一种危险。如果逐渐发展出来的、得到良好引导的自主性受到了否认(或者因最初的信任缺失而受到削弱),婴儿会把其所能识别和操纵的迫切欲望指向自己。他们会过度控制自我,会发展出早熟的意识。他们不会为了重复测试某些事物而占有它们。相反,他们自身会痴迷于很多重复性行为。在这样的痴迷中,他们学会了通过顽固和即时的控制来重新掌控环境和取得力量。这是强迫性神经症的婴儿期起源,也是成人企图通过语言而不是精神来进行控制的起源。

Shame is an emotion insufficiently studied, because in our civilization it is so early and easily absorbed by guilt. Shame supposes that one is completely exposed and conscious of being looked at: in one word, self-conscious. One is visible and not ready to be visible; which is why we dream of shame as a situation in which we are stared at in a condition of incomplete dress, in night attire, 'with one's pants down'. Shame is early expressed in an impulse to bury one's face, or to sink, right then and there, into the ground. But this, I think, is essentially rage turned against the self. He who is ashamed would like to force the world not to look at him, not to notice his exposure. He would like to destroy the eyes of the world. Instead he must wish for his own invisibility. This potentiality is abundantly used in the educational method of 'shaming' used so exclusively by some primitive peoples. Visual shame precedes auditory guilt, "Which is a sense of badness to be had all by oneself when nobody watches and when everything is quiet - except the voice of the superego. Such shaming exploits an increasing sense of being small, which can develop only as the child stands up and as his awareness permits him to note the relative measures of size and power. 

羞愧是一种未得到充分研究的情感,因为在我们的文化中,它太容易和罪恶感混为一谈。羞愧指的是个体完全暴露于他人面前,并且意识到了这种情况。个体引起了他人的注意,但并没有对此做好准备。这就是为何当我们梦到自己在衣衫不整、穿着睡衣或者“裤子掉了”时被他人注视会感到羞愧难当。羞愧最早会通过脸红,想要“找个地缝钻进去”表现出来。但我认为,这是把愤怒指向自己。羞愧的人会想要强迫世界不要看他,不要注意到他的暴露状态。他想要破坏世界之眼,希望自己不被任何人看见。这种可能性被原始人融入到了有关“羞愧”的教育方法中。视觉上的羞愧要强过听觉上的羞愧(即使在没有人注视自己或者所有事物——除了超我的声音以外——都很安静时,听觉上的羞愧仍然会引发个体的罪恶感)。羞愧利用了一种渺小的感觉,这种感觉会在孩子们学会走路后,并且产生了关于大小和力量的相对观念时逐渐增强。

Too much shaming does not lead to genuine propriety but to a secret determination to try to get away with things, unseen - if, indeed, it does not result in defiant shamelessness. There is an impressive American ballad in which a murderer to be hanged on the gallows before the eyes of the community, instead of feeling duly chastened, begins to berate the onlookers, ending every salvo of defiance with the words, 'God damn your eyes.' Many a small child, shamed beyond endurance, may be in a chronic mood (although not in possession of either the courage or the words) to express defiance in similar terms. What I mean by this sinister reference is that there is a limit to a child's and an adult's endurance in the face of demands to consider himself, his body, and his wishes as evil and dirty, and to his belief in the infallibility of those who pass such judgement. He may be apt to turn things around, and to consider as evil only the fact that they exist: his chance will come when they are gone, or when he will go from them.

过度羞愧并不会导致正当行为。如果它没能导致不知羞耻的话,那么便会让个体暗自决定,远离可能引发羞愧的人事物,不被看到。在一首令人印象深刻的美国歌谣中,当其中杀人者被公示于众时,他非但没有感到自己该受如此惩罚,反而开始斥责那些旁观者,重复表达着对旁观者的蔑视:“该死的目光!”有很多极度羞愧的小孩子,会以同样的方式表达自己的蔑视。我在这里想表达的意思是,儿童和成人对于把他们的自我、身体或想法看作邪恶和肮脏的这件事的忍耐是有限度的。他们相信只要为此接受了惩罚,自我、身体、想法便绝无错误一说。他们可能会倾向于扭转局面,认定只有真相继续存在时他们才会是邪恶的。当它们离开或自己远离它们后,他们的机会就来了。

Doubt is the brother of shame. Where shame is dependent on the consciousness of being upright and exposed, doubt, so clinical observation leads me to believe, has much to do with a consciousness of having a front and a back - and especially a 'behind'. For this reverse area of the body, with its aggressive and libidinal focus in the sphincters and in the buttocks, cannot be seen by the child, and yet it can be dominated by the will of others. The 'behind' is the small being's dark continent, an area of the body which can be magically dominated and effectively invaded by those who would attack one's power of autonomy and who would designate as evil those products of the bowels which were felt to be all right when they were being passed. This basic sense of doubt in whatever one has left behind forms a substratum for later and more verbal forms of compulsive doubting; this finds its adult expression in paranoiac fears concerning hidden persecutors and secret persecutions threatening from behind (and from within the behind).

怀疑是羞愧的好兄弟。羞愧有赖于对正直及暴露的意识,而临床观察使我相信,怀疑有赖于对拥有正反两面的意识,尤其是“背后那面”。身体的背面,包括了富有侵略性和力比多的括约肌和臀部,无法被个体自己看到,却可以被其他人支配。“背面”是那小小存在(指孩子)的黑暗大陆,是身体可以被他人——那些挑战孩子的自主性的人,以及那些将肠道中的东西视为邪恶的人——支配和侵占的区域。这种基本的怀疑观念无论以什么样的形式留存下来,都会在日后成为一种强迫性怀疑的基础。在成人身上,这种观念表现为一种偏执性恐惧,即害怕受到秘密的迫害者的威胁。

This stage, therefore, becomes decisive for the ratio of love and hate, cooperation and wilfulness, freedom of self-expression and its suppression. From a sense of self-control without loss of self-esteem comes a lasting sense of good will and pride; from a sense of loss of self-control and of foreign overcontrol comes a lasting propensity for doubt and shame.

因此,这一阶段影响了爱与恨、合作与任性、自由表达与压抑这些相对事物的占比。个体从自控、自尊中获得了持久的意志和骄傲,从失去自控、被过度控制中获得了怀疑和羞愧。

If, to some reader, the 'negative' potentialities of our stages seem overstated throughout, we must remind him that this is not only the result of a preoccupation with clinical data. Adults, and seemingly mature and unneurotic ones, display a sensitivity concerning a possible shameful 'loss of face' and fear of being attacked 'from behind' which is not only highly irrational and in contrast to the knowledge available to them, but can be of fateful import if related sentiments influence, for example, interracial and international policies.

在某些读者看来,我似乎夸大了“消极力量”。对此我想说的是,这并不是临床数据的偏见造成的结果。成年人看上去成熟且理智健全,却会对“丢脸”的情况以及从“背后”遭到攻击的情况相当敏感。这种担心常常不合情理,并且与其相关的情感会影响种族政策和国际政策。

We have related basic trust to the institution of religion. The lasting need of the individual to have his will reaffirmed and delineated within an adult order of things which at the same time reaffirms and delineates the will of others has an institutional safeguard in the principle of law and order. In daily life as well as in the high courts of law - domestic and international - this principle apportions to each his privileges and hisl imitations, his obligations and his rights. A sense of rightful dignity and lawful independence on the part of adults around him gives to the child of good ",ill the confident expectation that the kind of autonomy fostered in childhood will not lead to undue doubt or shame in later life. Thus the sense of autonomy fostered in the child and modified as life progresses, serves (and is served by) the preservation in economic and political life of a sense of justice.

我们曾将基本信任同宗教联系在一起。个体对于自己的意愿能以一种成熟的顺序得到重申和描述的需求,在法律和秩序的原则中得到了一种制度性的安全保障。在日常生活中,在国内和国际高等法院中,这种原则规定了每个人的特权和限制、义务和权利。成年人的正当尊严与合法独立性让有着良好意志的孩子们相信,在童年形成的自主性不会在接下来的人生中被过度的怀疑或羞愧削弱。因此,儿童的自主性为经济和政治生活保留了正义感。

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TAG: 怀疑 羞耻 羞愧 自主
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