Paula Heimann保拉·海曼简介
作者: 陈明 译 / 7404次阅读 时间: 2014年11月08日
标签: Heimann 海曼 简介

Paula Heimann née Klatzko 保拉·海曼 原姓克沃兹科( February 2, 1899 – October 22, 1982)


Paula Heimann was born in Danzig as the daughter of Russian Jewish parents. She attended the high school for girls and studied medicine from 1918 in Königsberg, Berlin and Frankfurt am Main, and passed the "Staatsexamen" in 1925 at Breslau. After attaining her MD in 1926 in Heidelberg, she practiced at the University Psychiatric Clinic in Heidelberg, and the Charité in Berlin. In 1924, she married the internist Franz Heimann; a year later their daughter Mirza was born. They divorced in 1933.

保拉·海曼出生于(波兰)但泽,父母是俄罗斯的犹太人。他就读于女子高中,从1918年开始在柯尼斯堡(今天的加里宁格勒)、柏林和美因河畔的法兰克福学习医学,1925年在布勒斯劳通过了“德国国家考试”。1926年在海德堡获得了医学博士后,她在海德堡和柏林的查理特大学精神门诊接受训练。1924年,她嫁给了内科医生弗朗茨·海曼Franz Heimann;一年后他们的女儿米尔扎(Mirza)出生。他们于1933年离婚。

From 1928 to 1932 Paula Heimann received her psychoanalytic training at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute. Her training analyst was Theodor Reik, supervising analysts were Karen Horney and Hanns Sachs. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Heimann emigrated with her daughter to London. That year she became an associate member and in 1939 (after reading her lecture A contribution to the problem of sublimation and its relation to processes of internalization) a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS). In 1938, she received her British medical qualification from the University of Edinburgh.

从1928年到1932年,保拉·海曼在柏林精神分析学院接受了她的精神分析训练。她的训练分析师是西奥多·赖克Theodor Reik,督导分析师是卡伦·霍尼Karen Horney和汉斯·萨克斯Hanns Sachs。1933年希特执政后,海曼和她的女儿移民伦敦。那年她成为了非正式会员(在她宣读了升华问题的贡献及其内化过程之后。)1939年成为了英国精神分析协会(BPAS)会员。1938年从爱丁堡大学获得了她的英国医生资格。

In 1934 Paula Heimann met Melanie Klein, whose emphasis on the aggression and the death instincts appealed to her. A year later she went into further analysis with Klein, continuing it (with interruptions) until 1953. She became a close collaborator of Melanie Klein and - besides Joan Riviere and Susan Isaacs - the most vehement advocate of Kleinian positions during the 1930s and 1940s controversies with Anna Freud and her followers. In 1944 she became a training analyst and was elected a member of the Training Committee of the BPAS in 1949.

1934年保拉·海曼与梅兰妮·克莱茵相遇,克莱茵呼吁她关注自己强调的攻击和死本能,一年后她去找克莱茵做深度分析,并持续(有中断)到1953年。她成为了梅兰妮·克莱茵身边除了Joan Riviere和Susan Isaacs之外的亲密合作者,在1930~1940年代与安娜·弗洛伊德的追随者的争论中,她是克莱茵阵营中最激烈的倡导者。1944年她成为了训练分析师,1949成为英国精神分析协会训练委员会的成员。

After the war, a break occurred between Melanie Klein and Paula Heimann, to which Heimann's paper On countertransference, read at the 1949 IPA Congress in Zürich, provided the ostensible cause. In this study, considered to be one of the most important influences on modern psychoanalytic technique, Paula Heimann presented a concept of the counter-transference that differed from the Kleinian view. To Melanie Klein the counter-transference signified merely a disturbance of the analytic process, however, Paula Heimann showed that the analyst's affective response to his patient could be a key to the unconscious of the latter. 


In 1955 Heiman left the Kleinian Group and joined the Independent Group of the BPAS. In the following years she pleaded for a synthesis of the Anna Freudian and Kleinian positions. Training analysands of hers were, among others, Betty Joseph, Martha Eicke-Spengler, Emilio Rodrigu, and Alexander Mitscherlich, whose Psychoanalytic Institute in Frankfurt she supported.

1955年海曼离开了克莱茵团体,并加入了BPAS的独立团体。在随后的几年,她恳请撮合安娜·弗洛伊德和克莱茵阵营。她的训练候选人是Betty Joseph, Martha Eicke-Spengler, Emilio Rodrigu, 和Alexander Mitscherlich,他们在法兰克福的精神分析研究所得到她的支持。

Paula Heimann, who was known for her charm as well as for her strictness and strength of will, died at the age of 83 in London.



A contribution to the problem of sublimation and its relation to processes of internalization. IJP 22. 1942, 8-17

On countertransference. IJP 31, 1950, 81-84 [Bemerkungen zur Gegenübertragung. Psyche 18, 1964, 483-493]

Certain functions of introduction and projection in early infancy. In Developments in Psycho-Analysis, London 1952

Notes on the theory of the life and death instincts. In Developments in Psycho-Analysis, London 1952

The polymorphous state of instinctual development. In Developments in Psycho-Analysis, London 1952

Problems of the training-analysis. IJP 35, 1954, 163-168Dynamics of transference interpretations. IJP 37, 1956, 303-310

Die Dynamik der übertragungsinterpretationen. Psyche 11, 1957, 401-415

Bemerkungen zur Sublimierung. Psyche 13, 1959, 397-414

Bemerkungen zum Arbeitsbegriff der Psychoanalyse. Psyche 20, 1966, 321-361

Gedanken zum Erkenntnisprozeß des Psychoanalytikers. Psyche 23, 1969, 2-24

About Children and Children-No-Longer. Collected Papers 1942-1980. Ed. by Margret Tonnesmann. London, New York 1989(with Melanie Klein, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere) (eds): Developments in Psycho-Analysis. London 1952

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