卡尔·亚伯拉罕 Karl Abraham (1877-1925)
作者: 武汉心理咨询网 / 5670次阅读 时间: 2010年3月05日
来源: AASP 标签: Abraham Karl 卡尔 亚伯拉罕
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卡尔·亚伯拉罕 [Karl Abraham 1877.05.03-1925.12.25],德国精神病学家。出生于德国布里曼,逝于德国柏林。

他求学于弗赖堡大学,并在那儿获得医学博士学位。1904-1907 年间,亚伯拉罕赴苏黎世布尔格霍尔茨诊所任著名学者 J.布洛伊尔的助手。在这期间他与 C.荣格相识,并接触了 S.弗洛伊德的著作。

1907 年,他赴奥地利维也纳与弗洛伊德结交,成为他的学生。回国后供职于柏林市立精神病医院,在那儿工作了 7 年后,进入柏林私立精神病院。1910 年,当还在柏林市立精神病院工作时,他不顾同行们的反对,创立了柏林精神分析学会,并亲自担任会长,一直到逝世。该精神分析学会为扩大弗洛伊德的影响曾起过巨大作用。

亚伯拉罕是弗洛伊德学派的圈内人物,是弗洛伊德最亲密的合作者之一,O.琼斯在为弗洛伊德写传记时称,“亚伯拉罕在这一具有坚定性、常识、敏锐性和完全的自我控制等特制的团体里是一个最正规的成员 ”。亚伯拉罕的医疗实践使他对精神病特别是精神病的发生感兴趣,并为此对精神病分析理论作出过许多贡献。

他赞成弗洛伊德的力比多理论和心理性发展的阶段划分,认为生物因素决定着里比多发展的特殊序列,患者的人格可以用心理性发展中的一个特殊阶段即“固恋”来解释。他对早发性痴呆和抑郁性燥狂这两种心理障碍颇有研究,并把他们分为两种类型:一种类型可以用心理动力学理论来解释,另一种类型基本上是生动性的,无法用心理学来解释。

亚伯拉罕的学生很多,其中后来成名的有 H.多伊奇、T.顿克、M.克莱因和 M.博伟等人。亚伯拉罕关于事物关系的思想促成克莱因和博伟等精神分析学家提出一些新的概念。

亚伯拉罕的文集有好几卷,在他去世后出版。


Karl Abraham, the brilliant founder of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute which is a model for institutes to follow, fluent in many languages, beloved of his colleagues, and a man of personal charm, died far too young. Abraham was a member of Freud’s Secret Committee and a favorite of Freud. He was the analyst of Melanie Klein, Karen Horney, Sandor Rado, Theodor Reik, Edward and James Glover, and Helene Deutsch.

Abraham completed his medical training in 1901, then worked in Bleuler’s clinic in Zurich and, later, with Carl Jung. He first met Freud in 1907 and their correspondence, first published in 1965 asA Psycho-Analytic Dialogue: The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham 1907–1926, will be published soon in a more complete and less sanitized edition.

Abraham’s contributions during the early years of the psychoanalytic movement are outstanding: in addition to the Berlin Institute, he edited the Zeitschrift, and was both secretary and president of the International Psychoanalytical Association.

Abraham’s many papers, which are a delight to read, are collected in two volumes,Selected Papers of Karl Abraham(1949), andClinical Papers and Essays on Psycho-Analysis(1955). They cover a wide range that includes work on pregenital stages of development, depression, mania, auto erotism, repressed hate, the female castration complex, anal character, as well as others on applied psychoanalysis that include papers on myth and the Day of Atonement. His work influenced Melanie Klein on infantile relationships as well as Rene Spitz’s research on hospitalism. Writing to Abraham’s widow, Freud said “I have no substitute for him....”

Karl Abraham, the brilliant founder of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute which is a model for institutes to follow, fluent in many languages, beloved of his colleagues, and a man of personal charm, died far too young. Abraham was a member of Freud’s Secret Committee and a favorite of Freud. He was the analyst of Melanie Klein, Karen Horney, Sandor Rado, Theodor Reik, Edward and James Glover, and Helene Deutsch.

Abraham completed his medical training in 1901, then worked in Bleuler’s clinic in Zurich and, later, with Carl Jung. He first met Freud in 1907 and their correspondence, first published in 1965 asA Psycho-Analytic Dialogue: The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham 1907–1926, will be published soon in a more complete and less sanitized edition.

Abraham’s contributions during the early years of the psychoanalytic movement are outstanding: in addition to the Berlin Institute, he edited the Zeitschrift, and was both secretary and president of the International Psychoanalytical Association.

Abraham’s many papers, which are a delight to read, are collected in two volumes,Selected Papers of Karl Abraham(1949), andClinical Papers and Essays on Psycho-Analysis(1955). They cover a wide range that includes work on pregenital stages of development, depression, mania, auto erotism, repressed hate, the female castration complex, anal character, as well as others on applied psychoanalysis that include papers on myth and the Day of Atonement. His work influenced Melanie Klein on infantile relationships as well as Rene Spitz’s research on hospitalism. Writing to Abraham’s widow, Freud said “I have no substitute for him....”

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