101种防御机制
作者: 《101 defenses》 / 16367次阅读 时间: 2009年8月21日
来源: www.amazon.com/ 标签: 防御机制
101种防御机制 作 者:布莱克曼
出 版:华东师范大学出版社
书 号:9787561787632
原 价:¥29.80元
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

9zr KdX"z.|/CL8Q0
101防御机制ppt下载

4Z\6Bi,?Y3b,kl0Oral phase口欲期 (0 to 3 years)心理学空间5gD't~&m h0i

H?7Q8W!MOU0
  1. Projection投射投 射 by 缪绍疆 
    {8kK.gJP3m0你将你自己的东西归结在别人身上。
  2. Introjection内 摄、内投射心理学空间~5a6A,NV#C$mj9H+f g
    你形成一个他人的影像。
  3. Hallucination幻觉化
    2e/}U!R5UJ-}SE Me!h0你看到或听到一些你试图不去思考的东西——愿望、意见、幻想或者评论——不具有现实检验。

Anal Phase肛欲期 (1.5 to 5 years)

n"V"x%X7u1i0
  1. Projective Identification 投射性认同心理学空间'`hMC*L tuAs4v6q R
    这个术语有三种常见使用方式心理学空间*_2Drt+Ld#Gy2i
    a)投射了如此多的你自己在另一个人身上意识与你对他/她产生巨大的曲解。心理学空间6[*QvQ;@;q~"uQH
    b)刺激他人使他人产生如你的不愉快情感(“苦难的恋爱伴侣”)心理学空间4N ?$T2W7D(E{N
    c) 刺激他人使他产生如你的不愉快情感,加上表现得像那个曾经使你感觉如此糟糕的人一样。
  2. Projective Blaming投射性责备
    V1wkhRiA*Y]A#X0你因为自己的问题而不公正地指责他人。
  3. Denial否认初识否认 by 李孟潮
    A2BD2w%rm"s4K0假定你自己已经感知到了现实(现实感是有功能的)。否认有四个类型:心理学空间'RVD%x8I
    a)本质否认:即使有大量的证据证实其存在仍对现实加以否认。心理学空间,h6BOS8\*h!g%b4S
    b)行为上的否认:通过行为象征性地表达出:“那个令人厌恶的事实并非真的!”心理学空间 T&S.xc2F6K Wh5`O
    c)幻想中的否认:坚持错误的信念那么你就不必看到现实。心理学空间Ti(V:br-IEZh!\Y*}5l
    d)言语上否认:使用一些特殊的字眼使你自己相信现实的虚假性。
  4. Dedifferentiation (Self-Object Fusion)失分化(自体-客体混淆)
    `sb6H2e u!b0你变成了他人要你成为的那个样子。
  5. Splitting分裂
    #[b9S:QV0你把某些人看成是完全敌对的,而把另外的人看成是完全可爱的。或者,你现在痛恨你爱过的魔鬼。
  6. Animism泛灵论
    ;A7Wb8`j2yR*l;y0c(|0你把人的属性赋予非人类实体上。
  7. Deanimation 去生灵
    }M}4?zIqWP%Z3Ym0你看到那个人不是人类,所以你不需要担忧。
  8. Reaction-Formation反向形成心理学空间'c`5cl:v
    你感觉到相反的。
  9. Undoing and Rituals取消和仪式抵 消 by 李孟潮
    @ckH,OJ:s1Rd0你违背自己的良心(超我)。或者你做一些自己感到内疚的事情,而后用另外一种象征性的行为惩罚自己来赎罪。
  10. Isolation (of Affect)(情绪)隔离心理学空间mWP!_3n
    你没有觉察到情感的感觉。
  11. Externalization外化
    q t!^$gcMU0你认为“社会”会批评你,而事实上是你感觉到内疚。
  12. Turning on the self转向自身心理学空间N!hz*l J5zh F;D:^;S
    你对某人感到生气,但是却反而攻击/杀死你自己。
  13. Negativism否定化/消极主义心理学空间(|gCb1w(}2?
    你拒绝合作,并且居高临下地对待他人。
  14. Compartmentalization间隔化/分隔心理学空间o:nZ |6U-b
    你阻止自己进行联接。
  15. Hostile aggression敌意性攻击
    Wd{*kbj0你进入争斗状态以掩藏不愉快的感受。

First Genital Phase 性蕾期(2 to 6 years)心理学空间+_d C:w3S,G.|B H#pu

  1. Displacement置换置 换 足 矣 by 李孟潮心理学空间k,lv5P(oz-N
    你对一个人有某种感受,但是把它转移到了另外的人或情况上面。
  2. Symbolically 符号化/象征化
    ~*}d2cMe0你赋予心理功能的某些方面不合理的涵义。
  3. Condensation凝缩、压缩
    aZF"MZm FD0你把完全不同的相近的想法焊接到一块。
  4. Illusion formation or daydreaming白日梦/幻想形成
    &OuY%B j0你有意识地想象一个忧愁或愉快的情景,并且知道那是一个幻想。
  5. Prevarication支吾搪塞心理学空间 C"ym-fi9q$y$Uy6A
    你为了一个原因而故意撒谎。
  6. Confabulation虚构心理学空间%W'b'U3T8O
    你在没有意识到的情况下撒了谎,以缓解低自尊感。
  7. Repressed压抑(或名潜抑) 
    jIbS3L u%v"r0你忘记了没有想要忘记的想法。
  8. Negative hallucination 负性幻觉/视而不见/否定性幻觉心理学空间2]b#I!j m9X6N ^^5?V)q
    你对于就发生在你面前的令人担忧的事件视而不见
  9. Libidinal regression[ Psychosexual regression ]利比多退行(心理性欲退行)
    q2J:[eA*y0你对性和独立自强感到害怕,所以你反过来变得依赖(口欲)或者顽固(肛欲)。
  10. Ego regression自我退行
    lG b(l%I z~?h0这个术语有三种使用方式:心理学空间s%E'~ SNH
    a)对功能造成干扰:你的自我功能或自我力量停止发挥作用,以至于你无法感受到某些不愉快的事情。
    8a![#Q,Stj\]B4j0b)倒退回较早的防御机制:你开始使用出现于发展早期阶段的防御机制。心理学空间 y2N2i$Y6Y&v|1q
    c)无能的防御活动:你的防御未能关闭情感,而这种失败通过惩罚你来减轻内疚感。
  11. Temporal regression暂时性退行/现实退行
    Gq,cN5P%\ u0你把注意力放在早年的时光以便不去想到当下的研究。
  12. Topographic regression 区域性退行/形态学退行心理学空间 O|SIj*YSx
    你通过做梦来回避痛苦的现实。
  13. Suppressed 克制/压制
    2s*Z)k8C \%G~q0你故意试图忘记。
  14. Identification with a fantasy和幻想认同
    t!HeU;|*x0你表现得像你喜欢的英雄一样。
  15. Identification with parents' Unconscious or conscious wishes/fantasies认同父母无意识的愿望/幻想
    3n b-Qg*B5?)~#g$m.L0你做你父母禁止的事情,把他们堕落的愿望付诸行动,然后受到惩罚。
  16. identification with the ideal image or object认同理想化的意象或客体
    0}d!J,M*KUa*v8U?0你像某个你认为伟大的人一样思考和行动。
  17. identification with the aggressor与攻击者认同
    ZD7B k X T3Qm0你以虐待的方式对待一个人,因为有人曾经用虐待的方式对待过你。这保护你免于感到愤怒。
  18. identification with the victim与受害者认同心理学空间 _1al;]c)oGc!m+h4i
    你通过允许或者寻求自己的受害者来表现得像另外一个人。你这样做是作为一种救赎的愿望或者是为了竭力摆脱你自己的愤怒或内疚。
  19. Identification with the lost object和丧失客体的认同
    $u['i0~ Nq!W3D)L0你表现得像一个失去了的所爱的人一样。如果你保存纪念品而且从来没有去哀伤,那么你已经得了“确实的病态哀悼”。
  20. Identification with the interject 与内摄物认同
    9{&o;?)U(k0你使一个内射物成为你超我的一部分。
  21. Seduction of the aggressor引诱攻击者/对攻击者的诱惑心理学空间 WuVG)Jb
    你以性或者谄媚的方式诱惑某个人以缓解恐惧。
    hhR ]CgV3a#e0

    6f*P!]!r7Eq[Z0Seduction of the Aggressor (Loewenstein, 1957)心理学空间~A#m z8k&n
    When a person is scary to you, you seduce that person sexually or ycophantically, to prove you are not afraid.心理学空间X me4_J${
    心理学空间7i ^n%kuh| N)g
    People who seduce the aggressor are probably also using reaction-formation, nhibition of judgment, counterphobia, and minimization. These defenses can reate havoc in a person’s choice of mate (e.g., a woman who believes she will eform a “bad boy” through her love for him).
    u7c-r5]Dc0心理学空间${nh6G2w&@
    Mr. JE, a 30-year-old plumber’s assistant, was upset with his current relationship with a woman, and depressed. He reported that his wife had left him to help her new lover set up pornographic websites. Mr. JE now was dating a woman who plied her trade as an astrologer and palm reader.
    GO O] t$X`0心理学空间3Xn3|ZY@
    He rationalized that she would not need to engage in these scams if he married her and supported her. He had already bought her a new computer and a new refrigerator.心理学空间.Lp d'J[ F8h

    2S5G7b\-U)C\`0Among the many dynamics involved in Mr. JE’s problems, I advised his therapist to interpret his seduction of the aggressor mechanism (as well as Mr. JE’s minimization of his new woman friend’s apparently antisocial traits). When the therapist did so, Mr. JE responded with relief. Mr. JE began to see that he picked out troublesome women and then tried to overcome his fear of them by being “sweet and supportive.”心理学空间`Vvl:i ]EK_ Nfl

    /z^*GP%m!q3Z H0t would seem self-evident that it’s best for a therapist to avoid unconsciously mploying seduction of the aggressor, but certain people can stimulate this defense by threatening to leave treatment. They can mobilize the therapist’s defenses through the use of projective identification where they create anxiety over object loss in the therapist.心理学空间d0} c'c4n

    BMR @s @,aU0Dr. C presented a case of an adult analysand, Ms. R, at a psychoanalytic meeting. Ms. R canceled many appointments. Dr. C described how she found herself looking out the window to see if Ms. R was walking in, wondering whether Ms. R would show up for her appointments.
    (M{8@.kkXl!}7[-@1x0心理学空间 T5__G0d(U
    In response to a conferee’s question, Dr. C reported that she had not confronted Ms. R about the missed sessions but had simply charged her for the appointments. Ms. R had paid without objection.心理学空间&A8h&@'H%VFT

    5p F hH P0Based on the past history of the patient, a discussant asked Dr. C if she had interpreted Ms. R’s attempts to get Dr. C to experience what Ms. R, herself, had experienced as a child: longing and insecurity regarding a mother who took care of her financially but was frequently gone on trips.
    /T,Nh.[ulq0
    AV"I2Ze;R7X;T0Dr. C responded that she had not thought of this; she had felt it best to “contain” Ms. R’s striving for independence. Dr. C did not want the patient to quit because she felt Ms. R needed the treatment.心理学空间6b{c&MvD:os&y

    VC2]G+^ T,x*V0My impression was that, by being an understanding “container,” Dr. C had unconsciously seduced the aggressor (Ms. R) to avoid anxiety over Ms. R possibly quitting treatment. Dr. C’s anxiety was apparently stimulated by Ms. R’s hostile, rejecting behavior.心理学空间.p3n:J5WY}:]9C

    uy OV1f0Tip.
    ii-KZAn9K2k)a,?0When, during consultation or treatment, people try to use you for something other than psychotherapy, they are often symbolically attacking you. Be careful not to become accommodating (“nice”) to people who make outlandish or unrealistic demands, or who miss many appointments.

    ;uWa;sz7m7L/`'g4q y0

Latency Phase 潜伏期(6 to 11 years)

0`T,i+EP+IH\[0
  1. Sublimation升华(作用)心理学空间E@Y:ax
    你积极参加一种活动,这种活动可以在象征层面使梦想成真。
  2. Provocation挑逗(衅)
    ? CnJ y}*G _ yrud*u0挑衅:你诱惑他人发生性关系或者惩罚你,或者二者同时。心理学空间|(m7W'LKT&w{ |

    |{~4p$x%N e'[0Provocation (Freud, 1916; Berliner, 1947; C.Brenner, 1959,1982a)
    u vX^r0You behave to make other people do something to you. If they sleep with you, you’ve induced sexual fantasy. If they hurt you, you’ve incited them to make you suffer, possibly to punish you to relieve your own guilt.
    *\ ve6Q#Eg_z0心理学空间]WCL{J
    During my general psychiatric training, some residents sometimes disparagingly referred to sexually provocative people as “id-ticklers.” Sexual predators, for example, have discovered various manipulations that may induce certain vulnerable persons to engage in sexual activity with them.
    -o^6pg(rp Vdk8E0心理学空间a)R:k6bG-r8q n ~
    We usually presume that sexually alluring or seductive people are quite aware of what they’re doing and have a definite motive in mind. But sometimes the provocateurs (or -euses) are relatively unaware of how stimulating they are—due to several unconscious defenses, including provoking the sexual interest in the other and, at times, denial of the reality of the effect of their behavior.
    ?YLX%OBB0心理学空间o+i+z:dNPm#R x | G7M]
    In 2002, a male colleague reported an unusual consultation with a striking young woman who complained that all the men she met seemed preoccupied with quickly having sex with her. What was unusual was that the woman, in his office, was wearing a see-through blouse and no bra. At some point, he gently introduced the idea that she seemed unaware that the way she was dressed might be contributing to her problems. She was at first defensive, rationalizing that see-through blouses were “in style.” However, she quickly realized she had been rationalizing, as well as unconsciously provoking sexual interest by others, while not noticing her own exhibitionistic wishes. She grabbed her jacket and for the rest of theconsultation sat covered.
    ;oKjQ$E!{nn(l0
    ?^n.l7{ i0Masochists, who provoke their own suffering, may be attempting to relieve guilt, although their motives for self-punishment can involve other dynamics (Novick & Novick, 1996). Masochists can bring suffering on themselves for many reasons, including the following:
    !LX#[)I9h'y0
    9^ vi/uGh~0• to control the timing of a feared unpleasurable experience (turning passive to active)
    zC\{3@/s%I,v0• to prove to themselves, through procrastination, that they can repetitively live through painful situations where someone must wait for and then get irritated with them
    '\ Me9Cr&Y0• to keep their own rageful impulses toward a victim out of conscious awareness —identification with the victim (MacGregor, 1991)
    7\x!RsV.d^t+GK ~^0• to unconsciously repeat, in symbolic form, previous traumata, in an attempt to reify magical thinking and make those traumas turn out differently (“acting out” of transference conflicts)心理学空间SkZWp9S}
    •to provoke, against themselves, hostility or criticism they actually feel toward others心理学空间+cb TkkwR7|0g
    • to unconsciously imagine they are disarming a frightening figure (Loewenstein’s [1957] seduction of the aggressor)
    5yL S&j1w(F0•to cling to a narcissistic or sadistic lover, in order to feel in control of anxiety and depression over loss of that person心理学空间1a(X~C{iqUJ
    • to provoke power struggles in order to avoid conflictual sexual urges (anal libidinal regression)
    z*Z#E(S'p e0Q,w4Z@0• to appease authority figures in order to magically obtain their “phallic power” (identification of the idealized object, involving what Greenacre [1956] called pathological “penis awe”)
    6@@*@5]id6v MG0• to unconsciously create or disrupt a fusion of identities (i.e., of self and object images), associated with weakness in self-boundaries and conflicts over distance (Akhtar, 1994)心理学空间;V)eF_y iv[
    • to alter drive functioning, so that suffering takes on symbolic sexual significance (Freud, 1919)心理学空间 NMW.B7?8dx~1s qvX:q
    • to obtain, symbolically, oral or genital gratification from a person who inflicts pain, associated with the thought that that person must care (defense versus loss of love)
    ?ESEBR,T}!\0• to relieve guilt over sexual matters so that sexual excitement can be enjoyed心理学空间xy&p [F)E L!A q


    -~oqv q4S@o0T%JtSI V0
  3. Rationalization合理化合理化及其它 by 李孟潮心理学空间 rlz7M*\7Wun3C'd g
    你找个借口来减轻张力,通常是在否认某些现实之后。
  4. Rumination(过度)沉思
    F0c+LNaez0你“过度分析”和“徒劳无益”地试图解决问题。
  5. Counterphobic Behavior反恐惧行为心理学空间~+T \"wsJ L
    你越怕什么,越做什么。
  6. Intellectualization理智化心理学空间9G?3iJ"d6Y R5@O
    理智化:你被一种特殊的行为理论所激励。
    ~nGW2c&g+[1x*m0
    l`b&s(s5W#@w0
  7. socialization and Distancing社会化和距离化
    ew[eh+A"x`F0社会化与疏离:你用你的社交能力使你远离痛苦的想法。心理学空间 z1p0t(xM6t Za'g&qx
    心理学空间8~ y%f-c,vI8Q`6a0m
  8. instinctuliation of an Ego Function 自我功能本能化
    Ozxb-r4}0自我功能的本能化:你赋予一种自我功能以一种象征性的含义。例如:“洗碗是女人的事情,”这是不合理地将一种特定的工作与性别等同起来。
    %X2Q {:J;J0心理学空间j/av/@E`Wa*QfD
  9. Inhibition of an Ego Function自我功能的禁止
    6n*y@ W'zs$b0某一种自我功能的压抑:你将自我功能转化为本能,并受到内疚感的冲击,所以你关闭了这一功能。例如:你不能阅读,因为阅读等同于被禁止的性行为。心理学空间~;s+j1Gu
    心理学空间QQ3xe/C@.E.|,L
  10. Idealization理想化心理学空间 t3R0[9{$J#X+U*@+n
    理想化:你过高评价某个人,因为—
    R0x/oU`0a)自恋:减轻自己不完美而导致的耻感;心理学空间?O0Cr*yI;B?
    b)自恋:你将此人与你过高的自我意象(自体客体)融合起来;
    8q_.[#oK%Zh0c)爱:避免体验失望;
    G4|+Z!ghm*u*p0d)移情:他们就像你小时候的完美的父母一样。
    dT/] r0P DL.w9M0心理学空间,fjg-Y6~
  11. Devaluation贬低
    8YoQ.R~r/]'|%{ N0贬低:你瞧不起某个人,以便保护你的自尊。

Adolescence and Later—Second Genital Phase 青春期及成人期( 13 to 20 years plus)心理学空间/^P9}.?nd'xU*j n

  1. Humor幽默
    6qag|3]/uS1l0幽默:你到处搞笑以回避痛苦的情感。
    n@Ob,Q)}^)xo0
    %} kJ*~ JY0
  2. Concretization(使抽象概念)具体化
    2|9Q\o6L'N)PHN0具体化:你停止使用抽象思维(本来你有的);你谴责某种“化学失衡”,或者寻找一种病毒,以回避思考那些让你沮丧的关系。
    E MJ]r M'd0心理学空间H+Mf nW8G-k1Z\
  3. Disidentification不认同心理学空间1w;p"@8J#^3?
    反认同:你努力变得跟父母不一样。
    d)u7s"u4i_"l/|8~0心理学空间?/]#S_8P `Ir/v6r
  4. Group formation团体形成心理学空间:I*XLb}u:^
    小团体形成:你身处人群中以对抗性冲动。心理学空间U~7Fq7C B})F c
    心理学空间6~4a/d\&b1o@
  5. Asceticism禁欲心理学空间zg:y/U,I h
    禁欲:你回避与人交往。心理学空间 L }+Ipmh9pG
    心理学空间;G H4L[!a
  6. Ipsisexual Object Choise手淫式客体选择
    aqawpd(g*A0同性客体选择:你的同性别的“伙伴”减轻了你对同性恋刺激的恐惧。 

Assorted其他

N;^-oJ d0
  1. One affect versus Another一种情绪对抗另外一种
    }/_;`&~BH(Y J5x0一种情感对抗另一种:你专注于一种情感,而回避另一种。
    w5[QW A H0
    B}4J p0o+X L0
  2. Hyperabstraction过度抽象
    7yi2L1Y#o9@6d0过度抽象化:你滥用理论。如果你也否认或者重建现实,那你有可能是精神病
    y0u_;w#OqB I0
    Tq y0Z6S!R2K N0
  3. Reticence沉默寡言心理学空间 D(Vy!u!|7M9d!V
    缄默:你停止说话以避免被发现。
    +l2\"@ N|&j g;~0心理学空间O)EW0d;F yTr
  4. Garrulousness多嘴多舌心理学空间SjGs2QJ
    饶舌:你说得太多,而没有顾及场合和话题。
    hBo n]*|+n0
    1J/\#k(x y},E }0
  5. Avoidance回避
    yZg _~ i]0回避:你远离某些环境,因为那些环境会制造冲突。
    GxZ9u,Gx2a!T0
    l O O!k7G0
  6. Passive被动心理学空间d4\3WDq%LPc
    被动:在面临攻击时,你自动选择顺从的或者软弱的态度。 心理学空间 r N0[L K

    'r+@!~/|} T*t @0
  7. Grandiosity/Omnipotence夸大/全能化
    h [t+x4Li X0自大/无所不能:你是上帝给与地球的礼物,有着神奇的力量。 
    7\| @#@k(F0心理学空间z0t xL;pOB
  8. Passive to Active被动转主动
    Vg zN%rt0被动对主动:“你不能象我开火;我走了!”你掌控着你自己的谎言。
    U9{G-Dn"E.N0
    Pi"{h&V V]+@0
  9. Somatization躯体化心理学空间2p;D |;T|%SH|
    躯体化:你专注于自己的身体,以避免口欲、性和仇恨的冲动导致的冲突。 
    h-?6aN&m ]0心理学空间/B9taml8Tn
  10. Normalization正常化
    '?,z+UE[0正常化:你不顾自己明显的精神症状,而确认自己是正常的。心理学空间 Du8P `xMr

    ]2F{%d V+`8v'x5l0
  11. Dramatization戏剧化
    -Ota"FM#^/A2yB*b8i0戏剧化:你将你的情感投注到你的言论中,以减轻被关注的冲突。心理学空间8]*bw;I ep Z

    D-v5Z n?q @7A[0
  12. Impulsivity冲动
    q7`%O M0C%{6y {H0冲动化:你用性、吃或者仇恨缓解张力或者不愉快的情感。
    TJ ^ G)VfO.U:n-w4U0心理学空间RsFUhfh(TF
  13. Substance abuse as a defense物质滥用
    2CR1VtP;o$w)v0物质滥用:你使用某种物质来平息不愉快的情感。
    ka^{1t0
    *L"Q6yfN}0
  14. Clinging粘附心理学空间G-Rq s u)y,~t H~V s.E
    依附:抓住一个拒绝你的人。心理学空间z9K ZQ;k'vJ;u
    心理学空间U#C:JTU
  15. Whining发牢骚
    )vfD+[ S&B7W H0抱怨:牢骚满腹,你看不见你的婴儿般的希望被照顾的愿望。 
    iy&L-{D \ G&P0
    y0B8W&P}'v gI0
  16. Pseudoindependence假性独立
    Q4l'~I |0假性独立:你变成了独行侠,不允许任何人帮助你。 
    o%sG7o$fX0心理学空间C ka-z6ad
  17. pathological altruism病理性利他
    7I0NA o0w%P5y1o0病理性利他:实际上是向受害者投射和认同—你否认口欲期欲望,将其投射到穷困者身上,然后替代性地感到被滋养。 心理学空间 bt(FHu{w
    心理学空间8V"dl[+^ L G
  18. Gaslighting装神弄鬼心理学空间)W7cC;{x/bZ
    煤气灯:你引起他人精神紊乱,或者相信他人精神紊乱了。 
    9A%p up!irg/L_0心理学空间"u!Q%\u:S zo
  19. minimization轻视心理学空间Hs(s%x lX8@7MtV
    最小化:你意识到了痛苦的现实,但你却轻视它。 
    [;\ H?2M'U4j8yI%T0心理学空间 R'x O7tr fc/K#?8F
  20. exaggeration夸大
    .H7Qus.s0夸大:你在某件事情上付出太多。 心理学空间+cR AB Sl2R
    心理学空间)EpB p~~ l
  21. generalization 泛化心理学空间2N6U+~"vIo2Hb
    普遍化:不恨某一个人,将其视为魔鬼中的一员。
    9?0l0U Bi/N[0心理学空间1r(Mg#or
  22. reconstruction of reality重构现实
    *z$b'Fu0u5Ux-_Y:YO0重建现实:你否认现实之后,重造一种情景。心理学空间a,oh2[;z[0KFA~Z
    心理学空间7yz'l#b.vu2z
  23. Transference传会(移情)心理学空间3KS v7M{%t _
    移情:你将既往情景和关系的记忆转移到现实中的一个人。然后你用旧的防御忘记过去,或者通过象征性生活其中来掌控它或者是改变它的后果。 
    $c;NF6bW;~i o0
    0X'vX.zTt#h0Y0
  24. dissociation解离
    z)fp Ok0分离:a)你完全忘记你自己;b)你让某个人评论你,然后你拒绝他或者她的观点。心理学空间7M l#oI-X
    心理学空间S"G1a!W7y8b oA
  25. photophobia恐光症心理学空间 j*i^{ A1I9?G
    你回避光线,以回避你的窥视色情癖(偷窥)冲动。心理学空间B9nY+xU(e*g

    5x/x9Od#t,f&}0
  26. apathy 情感淡漠
    "C'bl^K%zq&g_?0冷漠:你对启动情感没有任何兴趣。心理学空间a\9y B6k W(N p
    心理学空间~ v0C^#cQ K,|
  27. intimidation of others –bullying恐吓他人——威吓
    q1H9UI!z&Z0胁迫他人—欺凌弱小:你使别人处于警觉状态,以减轻自己的焦虑心理学空间7S.aW*m#s

    ;HT.^Vq0
  28. compensation for deficiencies对缺陷进行补偿
    B Wu?u6mv2o0你排斥那些比你整合得更好的人。 
    uNL!\8A*?6\0心理学空间e7\1r(M1Ei8k;O
  29. psychogenic tic心理源性抽搐心理学空间q7N`E!R!}*j
    抖动,以减少张力或愤怒。 心理学空间$Y.f)M4S7v})\'w8r
    心理学空间#f9g J2{-|)NI#H'mg
  30. introspection内省心理学空间"\,f9ps L X
    你全神贯注于内在反省以减少张力,或者回避外在现实。 
    C.S,Z3b.LVf\O0
    'ZG bdD0
  31. qualified agreement有限制的同意心理学空间/G1NM|e
    你部分同意以避免反抗。 心理学空间-Vv1A3aM.g&D.O I+q,HS
    心理学空间\qIW-v+[S
  32. instinctualization of an ego weakness对自我弱点的本能化
    0g'Ty2F's0弱化的自我功能的本能化:你的情感耐受力和冲动控制力(肌肉的或者性的)较弱,你赋予其温柔的内涵。
    9\'yrVk e})k8f1z0
    uH0g3csv F0
  33. Inauthenticity伪装心理学空间#{nB A:m+]SN`^ m6Z5Y
    你骗人,或许是习惯性的 
    8Z2^dd5d| c0
    ~8O:A?f_t0
  34. hyper-rationality高度合理化心理学空间$b4@ [w [Z0HG
    你使用次级过程以避免情感。心理学空间:x j%@7Z.R8v5P

    NPk1n!H(v,^*r:g0
  35. vagueness含糊
    uBe(RU }f*f(c7^0你隐藏细节。 心理学空间7s)bgI/H7Isg Ou0I
    心理学空间7|0~)m+EQ%v!RV
  36. hyper-aestheticism高度唯美主义心理学空间 j};am8i
    你沉溺于美与真理,以回避现实和情感。 
    TYH ^6?$|[CNp0心理学空间7s+^h ~%^
  37.  glibness快嘴快舌
    /KR j%n(s)?0你说得很快,但内容空洞。
    t$O)Ta+m7qM T0心理学空间J8?/H.^-VKx+g
  38. physical violence躯体暴力心理学空间 OD+z \5L}k1Q
    你“废掉客体”,以终止你的仇恨。
    JG1U"z |:u Ww0心理学空间P(?,kkor`5e
  39. identification with the injured object 与受伤客体的认同
    yFt t%n/yj0你弄伤一只你认识的(有时候是所爱的)小鸟,然后再模仿它。心理学空间G/ku*Y-`TQ#J Xh

    'i}_@B0
  40. formal regression 形式退行心理学空间Fz!V DF5~5V
    你停止使用逻辑的、时间定向的思维。心理学空间B2p |'{x,R-j8]8L5\

    O4ly.P+cR,]D0
  41. Hypervigilance高度警觉
    )\n5c!F)Qm%t7D0你永远睁着一只眼,尽管有时完全没有必要。心理学空间d^Lpu,P
    心理学空间:@Mvt9TR8L1g-^
  42. temporal displacement to the future暂时转换到未来心理学空间$Tl-ovi'S7ac
    你想象“假如…”或者“有朝一日…” 
    4um9Dg t-G%k!y0心理学空间.T!b~GM9x1n
  43. fatigue疲劳
    pg/Z7M_ v4\8b0你感到疲劳,但你身体没生病。心理学空间R7B@1?^]FG2TX d
    心理学空间@.o[J!R]D
  44. Frankness坦率心理学空间 Uc!s}R
    你真诚而生硬,但这些掩盖了你真实的想法和情感。 心理学空间By$H Z"I+n

    V;X)A1g)r%nc6Y0
  45. turning self-criticism onto the object自我批评转向客体心理学空间mm ?0w)E#B.L
    你批评他人,以替代指责自己。
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
TAG: 防御机制
«自我冲突的处理 防御机制
《防御机制》
弗洛伊德自我防御机制»
延伸阅读· · · · · ·