101种防御机制 简版
101种防御机制 作  者:布莱克曼
出  版:华东师范大学出版社
ISBN:9787561787632
原  价:¥29.80元

101防御机制ppt下载

Oral phase口欲期 (0 to 3 years)

  1. Projection投射投 射 by 缪绍疆 
    你将你自己的东西归结在别人身上。
  2. Introjection内 摄、内投射
    你形成一个他人的影像。
  3. Hallucination幻觉化
    你看到或听到一些你试图不去思考的东西——愿望、意见、幻想或者评论——不具有现实检验。

Anal Phase肛欲期 (1.5 to 5 years)

  1. Projective Identification 投射性认同
    这个术语有三种常见使用方式
    a)投射了如此多的你自己在另一个人身上意识与你对他/她产生巨大的曲解。
    b)刺激他人使他人产生如你的不愉快情感(“苦难的恋爱伴侣”)
    c) 刺激他人使他产生如你的不愉快情感,加上表现得像那个曾经使你感觉如此糟糕的人一样。
  2. Projective Blaming投射性责备
    你因为自己的问题而不公正地指责他人。
  3. Denial否认初识否认 by 李孟潮
    假定你自己已经感知到了现实(现实感是有功能的)。否认有四个类型:
    a)本质否认:即使有大量的证据证实其存在仍对现实加以否认。
    b)行为上的否认:通过行为象征性地表达出:“那个令人厌恶的事实并非真的!”
    c)幻想中的否认:坚持错误的信念那么你就不必看到现实。
    d)言语上否认:使用一些特殊的字眼使你自己相信现实的虚假性。
  4. Dedifferentiation (Self-Object Fusion)失分化(自体-客体混淆)
    你变成了他人要你成为的那个样子。
  5. Splitting分裂
    你把某些人看成是完全敌对的,而把另外的人看成是完全可爱的。或者,你现在痛恨你爱过的魔鬼。
  6. Animism泛灵论
    你把人的属性赋予非人类实体上。
  7. Deanimation 去生灵
    你看到那个人不是人类,所以你不需要担忧。
  8. Reaction-Formation反向形成
    你感觉到相反的。
  9. Undoing and Rituals取消和仪式抵 消 by 李孟潮
    你违背自己的良心(超我)。或者你做一些自己感到内疚的事情,而后用另外一种象征性的行为惩罚自己来赎罪。
  10. Isolation (of Affect)(情绪)隔离
    你没有觉察到情感的感觉。
  11. Externalization外化
    你认为“社会”会批评你,而事实上是你感觉到内疚。
  12. Turning on the self转向自身
    你对某人感到生气,但是却反而攻击/杀死你自己。
  13. Negativism否定化/消极主义
    你拒绝合作,并且居高临下地对待他人。
  14. Compartmentalization间隔化/分隔
    你阻止自己进行联接。
  15. Hostile aggression敌意性攻击
    你进入争斗状态以掩藏不愉快的感受。

First Genital Phase 性蕾期(2 to 6 years)

  1. Displacement置换置 换 足 矣 by 李孟潮
    你对一个人有某种感受,但是把它转移到了另外的人或情况上面。
  2. Symbolically 符号化/象征化
    你赋予心理功能的某些方面不合理的涵义。
  3. Condensation凝缩、压缩
    你把完全不同的相近的想法焊接到一块。
  4. Illusion formation or daydreaming白日梦/幻想形成
    你有意识地想象一个忧愁或愉快的情景,并且知道那是一个幻想。
  5. Prevarication支吾搪塞
    你为了一个原因而故意撒谎。
  6. Confabulation虚构
    你在没有意识到的情况下撒了谎,以缓解低自尊感。
  7. Repressed压抑(或名潜抑) 
    你忘记了没有想要忘记的想法。
  8. Negative hallucination 负性幻觉/视而不见/否定性幻觉
    你对于就发生在你面前的令人担忧的事件视而不见
  9. Libidinal regression[ Psychosexual regression ]利比多退行(心理性欲退行)
    你对性和独立自强感到害怕,所以你反过来变得依赖(口欲)或者顽固(肛欲)。
  10. Ego regression自我退行
    这个术语有三种使用方式:
    a)对功能造成干扰:你的自我功能或自我力量停止发挥作用,以至于你无法感受到某些不愉快的事情。
    b)倒退回较早的防御机制:你开始使用出现于发展早期阶段的防御机制。
    c)无能的防御活动:你的防御未能关闭情感,而这种失败通过惩罚你来减轻内疚感。
  11. Temporal regression暂时性退行/现实退行
    你把注意力放在早年的时光以便不去想到当下的研究。
  12. Topographic regression 区域性退行/形态学退行
    你通过做梦来回避痛苦的现实。
  13. Suppressed 克制/压制
    你故意试图忘记。
  14. Identification with a fantasy和幻想认同
    你表现得像你喜欢的英雄一样。
  15. Identification with parents' Unconscious or conscious wishes/fantasies认同父母无意识的愿望/幻想
    你做你父母禁止的事情,把他们堕落的愿望付诸行动,然后受到惩罚。
  16. identification with the ideal image or object认同理想化的意象或客体
    你像某个你认为伟大的人一样思考和行动。
  17. identification with the aggressor与攻击者认同
    你以虐待的方式对待一个人,因为有人曾经用虐待的方式对待过你。这保护你免于感到愤怒。
  18. identification with the victim与受害者认同
    你通过允许或者寻求自己的受害者来表现得像另外一个人。你这样做是作为一种救赎的愿望或者是为了竭力摆脱你自己的愤怒或内疚。
  19. Identification with the lost object和丧失客体的认同
    你表现得像一个失去了的所爱的人一样。如果你保存纪念品而且从来没有去哀伤,那么你已经得了“确实的病态哀悼”。
  20. Identification with the interject 与内摄物认同
    你使一个内射物成为你超我的一部分。
  21. Seduction of the aggressor引诱攻击者/对攻击者的诱惑
    你以性或者谄媚的方式诱惑某个人以缓解恐惧。

    Seduction of the Aggressor (Loewenstein, 1957)
    When a person is scary to you, you seduce that person sexually or ycophantically, to prove you are not afraid.

    People who seduce the aggressor are probably also using reaction-formation, nhibition of judgment, counterphobia, and minimization. These defenses can reate havoc in a person’s choice of mate (e.g., a woman who believes she will eform a “bad boy” through her love for him).

    Mr. JE, a 30-year-old plumber’s assistant, was upset with his current relationship with a woman, and depressed. He reported that his wife had left him to help her new lover set up pornographic websites. Mr. JE now was dating a woman who plied her trade as an astrologer and palm reader.

    He rationalized that she would not need to engage in these scams if he married her and supported her. He had already bought her a new computer and a new refrigerator.

    Among the many dynamics involved in Mr. JE’s problems, I advised his therapist to interpret his seduction of the aggressor mechanism (as well as Mr. JE’s minimization of his new woman friend’s apparently antisocial traits). When the therapist did so, Mr. JE responded with relief. Mr. JE began to see that he picked out troublesome women and then tried to overcome his fear of them by being “sweet and supportive.”

    t would seem self-evident that it’s best for a therapist to avoid unconsciously mploying seduction of the aggressor, but certain people can stimulate this defense by threatening to leave treatment. They can mobilize the therapist’s defenses through the use of projective identification where they create anxiety over object loss in the therapist.

    Dr. C presented a case of an adult analysand, Ms. R, at a psychoanalytic meeting. Ms. R canceled many appointments. Dr. C described how she found herself looking out the window to see if Ms. R was walking in, wondering whether Ms. R would show up for her appointments.

    In response to a conferee’s question, Dr. C reported that she had not confronted Ms. R about the missed sessions but had simply charged her for the appointments. Ms. R had paid without objection.

    Based on the past history of the patient, a discussant asked Dr. C if she had interpreted Ms. R’s attempts to get Dr. C to experience what Ms. R, herself, had experienced as a child: longing and insecurity regarding a mother who took care of her financially but was frequently gone on trips.

    Dr. C responded that she had not thought of this; she had felt it best to “contain” Ms. R’s striving for independence. Dr. C did not want the patient to quit because she felt Ms. R needed the treatment.

    My impression was that, by being an understanding “container,” Dr. C had unconsciously seduced the aggressor (Ms. R) to avoid anxiety over Ms. R possibly quitting treatment. Dr. C’s anxiety was apparently stimulated by Ms. R’s hostile, rejecting behavior.

    Tip.
    When, during consultation or treatment, people try to use you for something other than psychotherapy, they are often symbolically attacking you. Be careful not to become accommodating (“nice”) to people who make outlandish or unrealistic demands, or who miss many appointments.

Latency Phase 潜伏期(6 to 11 years)

  1. Sublimation升华(作用)
    你积极参加一种活动,这种活动可以在象征层面使梦想成真。
  2. Provocation挑逗(衅)
    挑衅:你诱惑他人发生性关系或者惩罚你,或者二者同时。

    Provocation (Freud, 1916; Berliner, 1947; C.Brenner, 1959,1982a)
    You behave to make other people do something to you. If they sleep with you, you’ve induced sexual fantasy. If they hurt you, you’ve incited them to make you suffer, possibly to punish you to relieve your own guilt.

    During my general psychiatric training, some residents sometimes disparagingly referred to sexually provocative people as “id-ticklers.” Sexual predators, for example, have discovered various manipulations that may induce certain vulnerable persons to engage in sexual activity with them.

    We usually presume that sexually alluring or seductive people are quite aware of what they’re doing and have a definite motive in mind. But sometimes the provocateurs (or -euses) are relatively unaware of how stimulating they are—due to several unconscious defenses, including provoking the sexual interest in the other and, at times, denial of the reality of the effect of their behavior.

    In 2002, a male colleague reported an unusual consultation with a striking young woman who complained that all the men she met seemed preoccupied with quickly having sex with her. What was unusual was that the woman, in his office, was wearing a see-through blouse and no bra. At some point, he gently introduced the idea that she seemed unaware that the way she was dressed might be contributing to her problems. She was at first defensive, rationalizing that see-through blouses were “in style.” However, she quickly realized she had been rationalizing, as well as unconsciously provoking sexual interest by others, while not noticing her own exhibitionistic wishes. She grabbed her jacket and for the rest of theconsultation sat covered.

    Masochists, who provoke their own suffering, may be attempting to relieve guilt, although their motives for self-punishment can involve other dynamics (Novick & Novick, 1996). Masochists can bring suffering on themselves for many reasons, including the following:

    • to control the timing of a feared unpleasurable experience (turning passive to active)
    • to prove to themselves, through procrastination, that they can repetitively live through painful situations where someone must wait for and then get irritated with them
    • to keep their own rageful impulses toward a victim out of conscious awareness —identification with the victim (MacGregor, 1991)
    • to unconsciously repeat, in symbolic form, previous traumata, in an attempt to reify magical thinking and make those traumas turn out differently (“acting out” of transference conflicts)
    •to provoke, against themselves, hostility or criticism they actually feel toward others
    • to unconsciously imagine they are disarming a frightening figure (Loewenstein’s [1957] seduction of the aggressor)
    •to cling to a narcissistic or sadistic lover, in order to feel in control of anxiety and depression over loss of that person
    • to provoke power struggles in order to avoid conflictual sexual urges (anal libidinal regression)
    • to appease authority figures in order to magically obtain their “phallic power” (identification of the idealized object, involving what Greenacre [1956] called pathological “penis awe”)
    • to unconsciously create or disrupt a fusion of identities (i.e., of self and object images), associated with weakness in self-boundaries and conflicts over distance (Akhtar, 1994)
    • to alter drive functioning, so that suffering takes on symbolic sexual significance (Freud, 1919)
    • to obtain, symbolically, oral or genital gratification from a person who inflicts pain, associated with the thought that that person must care (defense versus loss of love)
    • to relieve guilt over sexual matters so that sexual excitement can be enjoyed


  3. Rationalization合理化合理化及其它 by 李孟潮
    你找个借口来减轻张力,通常是在否认某些现实之后。
  4. Rumination(过度)沉思
    你“过度分析”和“徒劳无益”地试图解决问题。
  5. Counterphobic Behavior反恐惧行为
    你越怕什么,越做什么。
  6. Intellectualization理智化
    理智化:你被一种特殊的行为理论所激励。

  7. socialization and Distancing社会化和距离化
    社会化与疏离:你用你的社交能力使你远离痛苦的想法。

  8. instinctuliation of an Ego Function 自我功能本能化
    自我功能的本能化:你赋予一种自我功能以一种象征性的含义。例如:“洗碗是女人的事情,”这是不合理地将一种特定的工作与性别等同起来。

  9. Inhibition of an Ego Function自我功能的禁止
    某一种自我功能的压抑:你将自我功能转化为本能,并受到内疚感的冲击,所以你关闭了这一功能。例如:你不能阅读,因为阅读等同于被禁止的性行为。

  10. Idealization理想化
    理想化:你过高评价某个人,因为—
    a)自恋:减轻自己不完美而导致的耻感;
    b)自恋:你将此人与你过高的自我意象(自体客体)融合起来;
    c)爱:避免体验失望;
    d)移情:他们就像你小时候的完美的父母一样。

  11. Devaluation贬低
    贬低:你瞧不起某个人,以便保护你的自尊。

Adolescence and Later—Second Genital Phase 青春期及成人期( 13 to 20 years plus)

  1. Humor幽默
    幽默:你到处搞笑以回避痛苦的情感。

  2. Concretization(使抽象概念)具体化
    具体化:你停止使用抽象思维(本来你有的);你谴责某种“化学失衡”,或者寻找一种病毒,以回避思考那些让你沮丧的关系。

  3. Disidentification不认同
    反认同:你努力变得跟父母不一样。

  4. Group formation团体形成
    小团体形成:你身处人群中以对抗性冲动。

  5. Asceticism禁欲
    禁欲:你回避与人交往。

  6. Ipsisexual Object Choise手淫式客体选择
    同性客体选择:你的同性别的“伙伴”减轻了你对同性恋刺激的恐惧。 

Assorted其他

  1. One affect versus Another一种情绪对抗另外一种
    一种情感对抗另一种:你专注于一种情感,而回避另一种。

  2. Hyperabstraction过度抽象
    过度抽象化:你滥用理论。如果你也否认或者重建现实,那你有可能是精神病

  3. Reticence沉默寡言
    缄默:你停止说话以避免被发现。

  4. Garrulousness多嘴多舌
    饶舌:你说得太多,而没有顾及场合和话题。

  5. Avoidance回避
    回避:你远离某些环境,因为那些环境会制造冲突。

  6. Passive被动
    被动:在面临攻击时,你自动选择顺从的或者软弱的态度。 

  7. Grandiosity/Omnipotence夸大/全能化
    自大/无所不能:你是上帝给与地球的礼物,有着神奇的力量。 

  8. Passive to Active被动转主动
    被动对主动:“你不能象我开火;我走了!”你掌控着你自己的谎言。

  9. Somatization躯体化
    躯体化:你专注于自己的身体,以避免口欲、性和仇恨的冲动导致的冲突。 

  10. Normalization正常化
    正常化:你不顾自己明显的精神症状,而确认自己是正常的。

  11. Dramatization戏剧化
    戏剧化:你将你的情感投注到你的言论中,以减轻被关注的冲突。

  12. Impulsivity冲动
    冲动化:你用性、吃或者仇恨缓解张力或者不愉快的情感。

  13. Substance abuse as a defense物质滥用
    物质滥用:你使用某种物质来平息不愉快的情感。

  14. Clinging粘附
    依附:抓住一个拒绝你的人。

  15. Whining发牢骚
    抱怨:牢骚满腹,你看不见你的婴儿般的希望被照顾的愿望。 

  16. Pseudoindependence假性独立
    假性独立:你变成了独行侠,不允许任何人帮助你。 

  17. pathological altruism病理性利他
    病理性利他:实际上是向受害者投射和认同—你否认口欲期欲望,将其投射到穷困者身上,然后替代性地感到被滋养。 

  18. Gaslighting装神弄鬼
    煤气灯:你引起他人精神紊乱,或者相信他人精神紊乱了。 

  19. minimization轻视
    最小化:你意识到了痛苦的现实,但你却轻视它。 

  20. exaggeration夸大
    夸大:你在某件事情上付出太多。 

  21. generalization 泛化
    普遍化:不恨某一个人,将其视为魔鬼中的一员。

  22. reconstruction of reality重构现实
    重建现实:你否认现实之后,重造一种情景。

  23. Transference传会(移情)
    移情:你将既往情景和关系的记忆转移到现实中的一个人。然后你用旧的防御忘记过去,或者通过象征性生活其中来掌控它或者是改变它的后果。 

  24. dissociation解离
    分离:a)你完全忘记你自己;b)你让某个人评论你,然后你拒绝他或者她的观点。

  25. photophobia恐光症
    你回避光线,以回避你的窥视色情癖(偷窥)冲动。

  26. apathy 情感淡漠
    冷漠:你对启动情感没有任何兴趣。

  27. intimidation of others –bullying恐吓他人——威吓
    胁迫他人—欺凌弱小:你使别人处于警觉状态,以减轻自己的焦虑

  28. compensation for deficiencies对缺陷进行补偿
    你排斥那些比你整合得更好的人。 

  29. psychogenic tic心理源性抽搐
    抖动,以减少张力或愤怒。 

  30. introspection内省
    你全神贯注于内在反省以减少张力,或者回避外在现实。 

  31. qualified agreement有限制的同意
    你部分同意以避免反抗。 

  32. instinctualization of an ego weakness对自我弱点的本能化
    弱化的自我功能的本能化:你的情感耐受力和冲动控制力(肌肉的或者性的)较弱,你赋予其温柔的内涵。

  33. Inauthenticity伪装
    你骗人,或许是习惯性的 

  34. hyper-rationality高度合理化
    你使用次级过程以避免情感。

  35. vagueness含糊
    你隐藏细节。 

  36. hyper-aestheticism高度唯美主义
    你沉溺于美与真理,以回避现实和情感。 

  37.  glibness快嘴快舌
    你说得很快,但内容空洞。

  38. physical violence躯体暴力
    你“废掉客体”,以终止你的仇恨。

  39. identification with the injured object 与受伤客体的认同
    你弄伤一只你认识的(有时候是所爱的)小鸟,然后再模仿它。

  40. formal regression 形式退行
    你停止使用逻辑的、时间定向的思维。

  41. Hypervigilance高度警觉
    你永远睁着一只眼,尽管有时完全没有必要。

  42. temporal displacement to the future暂时转换到未来
    你想象“假如…”或者“有朝一日…” 

  43. fatigue疲劳
    你感到疲劳,但你身体没生病。

  44. Frankness坦率
    你真诚而生硬,但这些掩盖了你真实的想法和情感。 

  45. turning self-criticism onto the object自我批评转向客体
    你批评他人,以替代指责自己。
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时间:2009年8月21日
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