101种防御机制
作者: 《101 defenses》 / 17406次阅读 时间: 2009年8月21日
来源: www.amazon.com/ 标签: 防御机制
101种防御机制 作 者:布莱克曼
出 版:华东师范大学出版社
书 号:9787561787632
原 价:¥29.80元
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

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101防御机制ppt下载
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Oral phase口欲期 (0 to 3 years)心理学空间}+{"R`:lW)[h2mu

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  1. Projection投射投 射 by 缪绍疆 
    mlg \$K5y0你将你自己的东西归结在别人身上。
  2. Introjection内 摄、内投射
    H'D!P+Mfw8Dl0你形成一个他人的影像。
  3. Hallucination幻觉化
    "p n:U`"`$L,X5F |:yq6D0你看到或听到一些你试图不去思考的东西——愿望、意见、幻想或者评论——不具有现实检验。

Anal Phase肛欲期 (1.5 to 5 years)心理学空间#b"o0\,dtC

  1. Projective Identification 投射性认同心理学空间T9P4lK"P/g4b Jna
    这个术语有三种常见使用方式
    EI/T9O,MR {1B+@0a)投射了如此多的你自己在另一个人身上意识与你对他/她产生巨大的曲解。心理学空间 qIhsi_2_e)p
    b)刺激他人使他人产生如你的不愉快情感(“苦难的恋爱伴侣”)
    X TUmw|8y0c) 刺激他人使他产生如你的不愉快情感,加上表现得像那个曾经使你感觉如此糟糕的人一样。
  2. Projective Blaming投射性责备
    nB@Fz6[8O0你因为自己的问题而不公正地指责他人。
  3. Denial否认初识否认 by 李孟潮
    U0j-lS1W0假定你自己已经感知到了现实(现实感是有功能的)。否认有四个类型:心理学空间&Ah*_r"{!dbR
    a)本质否认:即使有大量的证据证实其存在仍对现实加以否认。
    ;x7z9W9Ue0b)行为上的否认:通过行为象征性地表达出:“那个令人厌恶的事实并非真的!”
    l7_P&v"c-u6V6r7l0c)幻想中的否认:坚持错误的信念那么你就不必看到现实。心理学空间D^4`'Y$g vzI
    d)言语上否认:使用一些特殊的字眼使你自己相信现实的虚假性。
  4. Dedifferentiation (Self-Object Fusion)失分化(自体-客体混淆)
    w7nzd J/\5G9_0你变成了他人要你成为的那个样子。
  5. Splitting分裂心理学空间1c5J*L$agOwi
    你把某些人看成是完全敌对的,而把另外的人看成是完全可爱的。或者,你现在痛恨你爱过的魔鬼。
  6. Animism泛灵论
    '{S+^)D8t%WZ0你把人的属性赋予非人类实体上。
  7. Deanimation 去生灵心理学空间iyL4G4L+C7I
    你看到那个人不是人类,所以你不需要担忧。
  8. Reaction-Formation反向形成
    (tP&w+K5lK Oz0你感觉到相反的。
  9. Undoing and Rituals取消和仪式抵 消 by 李孟潮
    ON.V9F8[+zw1}P0你违背自己的良心(超我)。或者你做一些自己感到内疚的事情,而后用另外一种象征性的行为惩罚自己来赎罪。
  10. Isolation (of Affect)(情绪)隔离心理学空间7Ed]C^P V/|
    你没有觉察到情感的感觉。
  11. Externalization外化
    0A ml&M!bm0你认为“社会”会批评你,而事实上是你感觉到内疚。
  12. Turning on the self转向自身心理学空间#Mu8V6H \
    你对某人感到生气,但是却反而攻击/杀死你自己。
  13. Negativism否定化/消极主义
    W9BKk9qF.h0你拒绝合作,并且居高临下地对待他人。
  14. Compartmentalization间隔化/分隔
    0[JC BGu(R0你阻止自己进行联接。
  15. Hostile aggression敌意性攻击心理学空间 ]d yW&O`
    你进入争斗状态以掩藏不愉快的感受。

First Genital Phase 性蕾期(2 to 6 years)

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  1. Displacement置换置 换 足 矣 by 李孟潮
    ^5DYm"EH$D[0你对一个人有某种感受,但是把它转移到了另外的人或情况上面。
  2. Symbolically 符号化/象征化
    :Al+x^-R mU$L|0你赋予心理功能的某些方面不合理的涵义。
  3. Condensation凝缩、压缩
    :mR*M'oGz0你把完全不同的相近的想法焊接到一块。
  4. Illusion formation or daydreaming白日梦/幻想形成
    4pu'[ T(\1})y0你有意识地想象一个忧愁或愉快的情景,并且知道那是一个幻想。
  5. Prevarication支吾搪塞
    #H6A[d9P p7w.h L0你为了一个原因而故意撒谎。
  6. Confabulation虚构
    J/j&wqc"U{N%Dx0你在没有意识到的情况下撒了谎,以缓解低自尊感。
  7. Repressed压抑(或名潜抑) 
    C].s[[$g5C;F0你忘记了没有想要忘记的想法。
  8. Negative hallucination 负性幻觉/视而不见/否定性幻觉
    jY)\{)sAV'S0你对于就发生在你面前的令人担忧的事件视而不见
  9. Libidinal regression[ Psychosexual regression ]利比多退行(心理性欲退行)
    JESrl"B0r y0你对性和独立自强感到害怕,所以你反过来变得依赖(口欲)或者顽固(肛欲)。
  10. Ego regression自我退行
    $_ ~g)v"UJ0这个术语有三种使用方式:心理学空间.} B5ji~S{ `N
    a)对功能造成干扰:你的自我功能或自我力量停止发挥作用,以至于你无法感受到某些不愉快的事情。
    M G#` Hx0b)倒退回较早的防御机制:你开始使用出现于发展早期阶段的防御机制。心理学空间%S)G-E8N Fob
    c)无能的防御活动:你的防御未能关闭情感,而这种失败通过惩罚你来减轻内疚感。
  11. Temporal regression暂时性退行/现实退行心理学空间n'c@8Y |$[O
    你把注意力放在早年的时光以便不去想到当下的研究。
  12. Topographic regression 区域性退行/形态学退行心理学空间z;y9]"E4d&Z5h
    你通过做梦来回避痛苦的现实。
  13. Suppressed 克制/压制
    .d7M[(X{#} K"Z]d t0你故意试图忘记。
  14. Identification with a fantasy和幻想认同心理学空间X4E%W1z[{Li
    你表现得像你喜欢的英雄一样。
  15. Identification with parents' Unconscious or conscious wishes/fantasies认同父母无意识的愿望/幻想
    bX ~]6_ c0你做你父母禁止的事情,把他们堕落的愿望付诸行动,然后受到惩罚。
  16. identification with the ideal image or object认同理想化的意象或客体
    -h:^J"wy-j\8~#O^$?3r0你像某个你认为伟大的人一样思考和行动。
  17. identification with the aggressor与攻击者认同
    {.w@$_,~Q0你以虐待的方式对待一个人,因为有人曾经用虐待的方式对待过你。这保护你免于感到愤怒。
  18. identification with the victim与受害者认同
    yBx;mf2G0你通过允许或者寻求自己的受害者来表现得像另外一个人。你这样做是作为一种救赎的愿望或者是为了竭力摆脱你自己的愤怒或内疚。
  19. Identification with the lost object和丧失客体的认同心理学空间"S"k*t4y3C
    你表现得像一个失去了的所爱的人一样。如果你保存纪念品而且从来没有去哀伤,那么你已经得了“确实的病态哀悼”。
  20. Identification with the interject 与内摄物认同
    H/E Up RJ;F0你使一个内射物成为你超我的一部分。
  21. Seduction of the aggressor引诱攻击者/对攻击者的诱惑心理学空间.Po/N!R'MV!n
    你以性或者谄媚的方式诱惑某个人以缓解恐惧。
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    Seduction of the Aggressor (Loewenstein, 1957)心理学空间k3|5U*fF7z4w
    When a person is scary to you, you seduce that person sexually or ycophantically, to prove you are not afraid.心理学空间 d TU:A(f

    a{ I%cb jy l;N"~0People who seduce the aggressor are probably also using reaction-formation, nhibition of judgment, counterphobia, and minimization. These defenses can reate havoc in a person’s choice of mate (e.g., a woman who believes she will eform a “bad boy” through her love for him).心理学空间8@F&ff;_T(siCi
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    Mr. JE, a 30-year-old plumber’s assistant, was upset with his current relationship with a woman, and depressed. He reported that his wife had left him to help her new lover set up pornographic websites. Mr. JE now was dating a woman who plied her trade as an astrologer and palm reader.
    B5]WJ'r9}0心理学空间$m8ql \K/t M7N2A
    He rationalized that she would not need to engage in these scams if he married her and supported her. He had already bought her a new computer and a new refrigerator.
    -A)T"cT!?O,Gv0心理学空间 d.V;P:V x6|
    Among the many dynamics involved in Mr. JE’s problems, I advised his therapist to interpret his seduction of the aggressor mechanism (as well as Mr. JE’s minimization of his new woman friend’s apparently antisocial traits). When the therapist did so, Mr. JE responded with relief. Mr. JE began to see that he picked out troublesome women and then tried to overcome his fear of them by being “sweet and supportive.”
    !M ]O1mh%Q ?*E0心理学空间f5|r ?-N }9u-~K
    t would seem self-evident that it’s best for a therapist to avoid unconsciously mploying seduction of the aggressor, but certain people can stimulate this defense by threatening to leave treatment. They can mobilize the therapist’s defenses through the use of projective identification where they create anxiety over object loss in the therapist.心理学空间hd%Ba$^
    心理学空间0]e%v#WEs)j
    Dr. C presented a case of an adult analysand, Ms. R, at a psychoanalytic meeting. Ms. R canceled many appointments. Dr. C described how she found herself looking out the window to see if Ms. R was walking in, wondering whether Ms. R would show up for her appointments.心理学空间aj-_ Df
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    In response to a conferee’s question, Dr. C reported that she had not confronted Ms. R about the missed sessions but had simply charged her for the appointments. Ms. R had paid without objection.
    :X}6oGH/p0心理学空间|+l%lX/L-W @
    Based on the past history of the patient, a discussant asked Dr. C if she had interpreted Ms. R’s attempts to get Dr. C to experience what Ms. R, herself, had experienced as a child: longing and insecurity regarding a mother who took care of her financially but was frequently gone on trips.心理学空间%}D|U@E2d.O
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    Dr. C responded that she had not thought of this; she had felt it best to “contain” Ms. R’s striving for independence. Dr. C did not want the patient to quit because she felt Ms. R needed the treatment.
    :F!iN3ipKP.}0心理学空间 W@4]$s1`x
    My impression was that, by being an understanding “container,” Dr. C had unconsciously seduced the aggressor (Ms. R) to avoid anxiety over Ms. R possibly quitting treatment. Dr. C’s anxiety was apparently stimulated by Ms. R’s hostile, rejecting behavior.心理学空间]zf}x"RIe's)Y@ q

    x&n)M7`8o }`7Ep%p0Tip.心理学空间x(~Fy-?,z}:e5M}
    When, during consultation or treatment, people try to use you for something other than psychotherapy, they are often symbolically attacking you. Be careful not to become accommodating (“nice”) to people who make outlandish or unrealistic demands, or who miss many appointments.

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Latency Phase 潜伏期(6 to 11 years)

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  1. Sublimation升华(作用)
    X4m*k ]8r0b0你积极参加一种活动,这种活动可以在象征层面使梦想成真。
  2. Provocation挑逗(衅)
    V\sLL2L0挑衅:你诱惑他人发生性关系或者惩罚你,或者二者同时。心理学空间#S@;j{Q.d _
    心理学空间:cmb5`8Exx

    Provocation (Freud, 1916; Berliner, 1947; C.Brenner, 1959,1982a)
    Low'nV6}7\py0You behave to make other people do something to you. If they sleep with you, you’ve induced sexual fantasy. If they hurt you, you’ve incited them to make you suffer, possibly to punish you to relieve your own guilt.心理学空间k#s'c-z*l2OnWT

    j@.ce/iv3y0During my general psychiatric training, some residents sometimes disparagingly referred to sexually provocative people as “id-ticklers.” Sexual predators, for example, have discovered various manipulations that may induce certain vulnerable persons to engage in sexual activity with them.
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    e b0n^g@]I~0We usually presume that sexually alluring or seductive people are quite aware of what they’re doing and have a definite motive in mind. But sometimes the provocateurs (or -euses) are relatively unaware of how stimulating they are—due to several unconscious defenses, including provoking the sexual interest in the other and, at times, denial of the reality of the effect of their behavior.
    Tz4`%k%h C^G)uA0
    @AK I*tv0In 2002, a male colleague reported an unusual consultation with a striking young woman who complained that all the men she met seemed preoccupied with quickly having sex with her. What was unusual was that the woman, in his office, was wearing a see-through blouse and no bra. At some point, he gently introduced the idea that she seemed unaware that the way she was dressed might be contributing to her problems. She was at first defensive, rationalizing that see-through blouses were “in style.” However, she quickly realized she had been rationalizing, as well as unconsciously provoking sexual interest by others, while not noticing her own exhibitionistic wishes. She grabbed her jacket and for the rest of theconsultation sat covered.心理学空间gt:B s2p nN _v

    9Q:Q%E$h?)Uf0Masochists, who provoke their own suffering, may be attempting to relieve guilt, although their motives for self-punishment can involve other dynamics (Novick & Novick, 1996). Masochists can bring suffering on themselves for many reasons, including the following:心理学空间'Y*ZOdR+{
    心理学空间%]D4k Kk!Goq
    • to control the timing of a feared unpleasurable experience (turning passive to active)
    DI5j|O0• to prove to themselves, through procrastination, that they can repetitively live through painful situations where someone must wait for and then get irritated with them心理学空间m0EP%t']9j"j
    • to keep their own rageful impulses toward a victim out of conscious awareness —identification with the victim (MacGregor, 1991)
    ;G'?TI(T ov0• to unconsciously repeat, in symbolic form, previous traumata, in an attempt to reify magical thinking and make those traumas turn out differently (“acting out” of transference conflicts)心理学空间6gP9D"k(FC
    •to provoke, against themselves, hostility or criticism they actually feel toward others
    3J{+h.KZH0• to unconsciously imagine they are disarming a frightening figure (Loewenstein’s [1957] seduction of the aggressor)心理学空间$y&|Sp@;\6le-O
    •to cling to a narcissistic or sadistic lover, in order to feel in control of anxiety and depression over loss of that person心理学空间[ E3QLVR,K
    • to provoke power struggles in order to avoid conflictual sexual urges (anal libidinal regression)
    l2U"qt-s/y|6e0• to appease authority figures in order to magically obtain their “phallic power” (identification of the idealized object, involving what Greenacre [1956] called pathological “penis awe”)心理学空间QC,|e5D2q"s"e
    • to unconsciously create or disrupt a fusion of identities (i.e., of self and object images), associated with weakness in self-boundaries and conflicts over distance (Akhtar, 1994)
    /t gHV6[+@$z/Z |!O0• to alter drive functioning, so that suffering takes on symbolic sexual significance (Freud, 1919)
    "A&KLUv3@xB2a#] sy0• to obtain, symbolically, oral or genital gratification from a person who inflicts pain, associated with the thought that that person must care (defense versus loss of love)
    B2v |dqd-t D?*z;A8Q,j0• to relieve guilt over sexual matters so that sexual excitement can be enjoyed心理学空间}L9t3{?:P G!g(p

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  3. Rationalization合理化合理化及其它 by 李孟潮心理学空间*[ ls/E3u&]
    你找个借口来减轻张力,通常是在否认某些现实之后。
  4. Rumination(过度)沉思
    \1?]F y3gp#Y de:]0你“过度分析”和“徒劳无益”地试图解决问题。
  5. Counterphobic Behavior反恐惧行为
    !\6J0M^0a J q OO[0你越怕什么,越做什么。
  6. Intellectualization理智化心理学空间9ex z}V |@
    理智化:你被一种特殊的行为理论所激励。
    W y7\8N&lo']&Bh/L0心理学空间b;Q ~Cj2?&UAn:M0I
  7. socialization and Distancing社会化和距离化心理学空间!ZMJuNI!zQ {
    社会化与疏离:你用你的社交能力使你远离痛苦的想法。心理学空间e4g5f? fWm6[
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  8. instinctuliation of an Ego Function 自我功能本能化心理学空间(A reb.xtk2v1h
    自我功能的本能化:你赋予一种自我功能以一种象征性的含义。例如:“洗碗是女人的事情,”这是不合理地将一种特定的工作与性别等同起来。心理学空间!t^,r5R+[ [

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  9. Inhibition of an Ego Function自我功能的禁止心理学空间d1vu-@^FeF
    某一种自我功能的压抑:你将自我功能转化为本能,并受到内疚感的冲击,所以你关闭了这一功能。例如:你不能阅读,因为阅读等同于被禁止的性行为。
    )u%R\ZFD| \0心理学空间*pbI7p_+AK^v
  10. Idealization理想化心理学空间k i8Oes!k}(j
    理想化:你过高评价某个人,因为—心理学空间/Y-j3~v5Vf/M
    a)自恋:减轻自己不完美而导致的耻感;
    9U$f3j!^pK0b)自恋:你将此人与你过高的自我意象(自体客体)融合起来;
    e s`)J-S iR/ed0c)爱:避免体验失望;
    xkU/v%_s5C0d)移情:他们就像你小时候的完美的父母一样。
    P#nR vGp%ff0心理学空间ep@v3[,X y!S3w
  11. Devaluation贬低
    ^C8C@.bm0贬低:你瞧不起某个人,以便保护你的自尊。

Adolescence and Later—Second Genital Phase 青春期及成人期( 13 to 20 years plus)心理学空间b{`&Ei t%s W-ug*G

  1. Humor幽默心理学空间 D7q0dJ0[6k1V d7ND
    幽默:你到处搞笑以回避痛苦的情感。心理学空间$K6E%j HGO

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  2. Concretization(使抽象概念)具体化心理学空间5O*e{ E)_x"W
    具体化:你停止使用抽象思维(本来你有的);你谴责某种“化学失衡”,或者寻找一种病毒,以回避思考那些让你沮丧的关系。心理学空间_M6EF3c,NZX

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  3. Disidentification不认同心理学空间W]/gkn
    反认同:你努力变得跟父母不一样。心理学空间NH!tY!@4u

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  4. Group formation团体形成心理学空间6t!kp'S `"a n
    小团体形成:你身处人群中以对抗性冲动。心理学空间 ^"h:`,dF:{4lw
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  5. Asceticism禁欲心理学空间 t)\0uexM9q \,IW
    禁欲:你回避与人交往。
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  6. Ipsisexual Object Choise手淫式客体选择心理学空间,JW(dVI#l m I
    同性客体选择:你的同性别的“伙伴”减轻了你对同性恋刺激的恐惧。 

Assorted其他心理学空间UV7apM){G

  1. One affect versus Another一种情绪对抗另外一种心理学空间B2].JO-y*k1mYk!R,A
    一种情感对抗另一种:你专注于一种情感,而回避另一种。
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  2. Hyperabstraction过度抽象
    s~5|0_1}G1Rh0|0过度抽象化:你滥用理论。如果你也否认或者重建现实,那你有可能是精神病心理学空间"QAA9N%i~+?tD
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  3. Reticence沉默寡言
    &m6F#qui A s4r0缄默:你停止说话以避免被发现。心理学空间5[sI:HIG
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  4. Garrulousness多嘴多舌
    G-X.S#eVM)},R0饶舌:你说得太多,而没有顾及场合和话题。
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  5. Avoidance回避心理学空间E_0q9C,s}
    回避:你远离某些环境,因为那些环境会制造冲突。
    0_9Ve$p9XZzS0心理学空间+P-KhVpQEKHc
  6. Passive被动
    ?]j|R.k~*p0被动:在面临攻击时,你自动选择顺从的或者软弱的态度。 
    #@ V,L M+y"{b0心理学空间Fw&r S.m/\
  7. Grandiosity/Omnipotence夸大/全能化心理学空间:\&k-c Z? v
    自大/无所不能:你是上帝给与地球的礼物,有着神奇的力量。 心理学空间8fCa6`gcB(~K

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  8. Passive to Active被动转主动
    7KN t?&Z%Gq0被动对主动:“你不能象我开火;我走了!”你掌控着你自己的谎言。
    V2_&q!\g)N1L$d5N0心理学空间3^%Jo#Kb'N
  9. Somatization躯体化
    VKJl+OBV0躯体化:你专注于自己的身体,以避免口欲、性和仇恨的冲动导致的冲突。 
    n;s3\ j[N*[0心理学空间6dg{B[#k;b,F9[
  10. Normalization正常化
    CLVAGnA}@G%e^0正常化:你不顾自己明显的精神症状,而确认自己是正常的。心理学空间V,vb1hpZ'|#r0~.h

    ^J8b7Wh|0
  11. Dramatization戏剧化心理学空间$v!kkm/H8qa
    戏剧化:你将你的情感投注到你的言论中,以减轻被关注的冲突。
    \6F:rB~(t-G%v U0
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  12. Impulsivity冲动
    $\8z4v,QfS g0冲动化:你用性、吃或者仇恨缓解张力或者不愉快的情感。心理学空间6WK U,u WfD Ba;H

    n6P!k3O}g N0
  13. Substance abuse as a defense物质滥用心理学空间bO5]Q0`?$v
    物质滥用:你使用某种物质来平息不愉快的情感。心理学空间 ~Mt t] f
    心理学空间sggT*Z)V4g_
  14. Clinging粘附
    1J y+D#CFh(n0依附:抓住一个拒绝你的人。心理学空间EL3yjE!]

    T%V{4Q e8j8?$G0
  15. Whining发牢骚心理学空间~.I[ N1G:c
    抱怨:牢骚满腹,你看不见你的婴儿般的希望被照顾的愿望。 
    Ni4@f5J8w k5j"e J0
    9l&j$HgHsIjy4VL0
  16. Pseudoindependence假性独立心理学空间Dm(n&P/B"^'x({
    假性独立:你变成了独行侠,不允许任何人帮助你。 
    :ow*ee3C.@_0
    z(]KS+g0
  17. pathological altruism病理性利他心理学空间'~-?4b9`_9Md W
    病理性利他:实际上是向受害者投射和认同—你否认口欲期欲望,将其投射到穷困者身上,然后替代性地感到被滋养。 
    *X+J2IQ0Bn,Ks0心理学空间K*nS+B#V:vu|o[^'n
  18. Gaslighting装神弄鬼
    +N4A?&YFD0煤气灯:你引起他人精神紊乱,或者相信他人精神紊乱了。 心理学空间O6v5Z d@kb5yOQ
    心理学空间YFm,he}i"?
  19. minimization轻视心理学空间%WWd6q.d)?5J5s&U6p
    最小化:你意识到了痛苦的现实,但你却轻视它。 
    !@4i"p'I8w2F1F0
    #_,b I I"~~o0
  20. exaggeration夸大
    kFV5U M0夸大:你在某件事情上付出太多。 心理学空间rq?.y{)f,g

    .Y)h?DV y^ v1K3yR)c0
  21. generalization 泛化
    6z0E-G"m,c(S+lJt0普遍化:不恨某一个人,将其视为魔鬼中的一员。心理学空间Q~9y#UJuuy1q

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  22. reconstruction of reality重构现实
    f'i%cS(A;lk0~0重建现实:你否认现实之后,重造一种情景。心理学空间0u#Tt Y.[-O

    f%C2l8L2g"R5e-u D s0
  23. Transference传会(移情)
    wc&U {.F0移情:你将既往情景和关系的记忆转移到现实中的一个人。然后你用旧的防御忘记过去,或者通过象征性生活其中来掌控它或者是改变它的后果。 
    @`8n%x/G a*v0心理学空间 v"[$l D.u9Qkj
  24. dissociation解离
    :Kb'fLN0分离:a)你完全忘记你自己;b)你让某个人评论你,然后你拒绝他或者她的观点。心理学空间)k"m)f\+C+q sN

    6Vw#~CQ0
  25. photophobia恐光症
    %W-C;T(Z9oQ*Zh T0你回避光线,以回避你的窥视色情癖(偷窥)冲动。心理学空间v$isYJ*m&e

    @-['k N0uoj0
  26. apathy 情感淡漠
    I6YqMx7N2g0冷漠:你对启动情感没有任何兴趣。
    1V[ Dhj0P(M3C0心理学空间dQ|s5L:o
  27. intimidation of others –bullying恐吓他人——威吓
    1| P)ja.m$s*E0胁迫他人—欺凌弱小:你使别人处于警觉状态,以减轻自己的焦虑心理学空间y%v%u gNz7f
    心理学空间jqn!s1[
  28. compensation for deficiencies对缺陷进行补偿
    sF;i)Vm'E2\I+uE&@0你排斥那些比你整合得更好的人。 
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  29. psychogenic tic心理源性抽搐心理学空间.@^&g7hZ
    抖动,以减少张力或愤怒。 
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  30. introspection内省心理学空间*`m1t%{K-g(B"G,aLh
    你全神贯注于内在反省以减少张力,或者回避外在现实。 
    ts;S/g` ^5c4r Ig0
    I:W)J+O+`7d1S.a,U:mv S0
  31. qualified agreement有限制的同意
    '|}.w~k+Be0你部分同意以避免反抗。 心理学空间#tWt4VW,B9O
    心理学空间xp1vg]Q
  32. instinctualization of an ego weakness对自我弱点的本能化
    %Os-z*\~-~ Z9[4@0弱化的自我功能的本能化:你的情感耐受力和冲动控制力(肌肉的或者性的)较弱,你赋予其温柔的内涵。
    }J a:|L0心理学空间 Qi#y5u!C
  33. Inauthenticity伪装
    WTru0L&F|^+E0你骗人,或许是习惯性的 
    "~ys!c'?Lo|3{0心理学空间i,X*y'E!YC
  34. hyper-rationality高度合理化
    +VFTf1c `"hN0你使用次级过程以避免情感。
    %yWc6[.lvR0心理学空间ghE-IL
  35. vagueness含糊
    &x&~l.l}rY c0你隐藏细节。 
    h9^#L;l1E%z0心理学空间so.}6uz1[+Mcx4@1b
  36. hyper-aestheticism高度唯美主义心理学空间(g-hL_ Mm!Q v*m]M&o
    你沉溺于美与真理,以回避现实和情感。 心理学空间l Qu@*aJ/x'g.B

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  37.  glibness快嘴快舌心理学空间G_u'jk9j"A[-U
    你说得很快,但内容空洞。
    S!SxG%pf.o0z}0
    H/U0Cwe;QX0
  38. physical violence躯体暴力心理学空间U C/On;w
    你“废掉客体”,以终止你的仇恨。
    %JB1M%Me%x%\0心理学空间&A,Sr7z,r`"hh0h
  39. identification with the injured object 与受伤客体的认同
    6vW mQG#{"y0你弄伤一只你认识的(有时候是所爱的)小鸟,然后再模仿它。
    `7|6g,a4L6O0心理学空间'oP%gDsP5c;K.\
  40. formal regression 形式退行
    YX0Bo&bSD0你停止使用逻辑的、时间定向的思维。
    if{ Oi_0心理学空间/P1Y1A7K&S_UF6@)^
  41. Hypervigilance高度警觉
    \d/xDn;@ eI$I0你永远睁着一只眼,尽管有时完全没有必要。
    D0yw,k4r7^0
    &|T&F!j_0
  42. temporal displacement to the future暂时转换到未来
    X)PZ5_H _yi0你想象“假如…”或者“有朝一日…” 
    \:Gk(dq0G%E4u0心理学空间!TZI)Bh%xm!C D"?
  43. fatigue疲劳心理学空间.^;k"w Z6N}S3c"v
    你感到疲劳,但你身体没生病。心理学空间1X.J]v SadG
    心理学空间 f9S0p Ba5Cw)Q:r-Nj
  44. Frankness坦率
    (O-|Z,s~(ax0你真诚而生硬,但这些掩盖了你真实的想法和情感。 心理学空间Zz:S*R0y

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  45. turning self-criticism onto the object自我批评转向客体
    `}n/]-TZy _hk G0你批评他人,以替代指责自己。
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TAG: 防御机制
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