四、勤奋对自卑
作者: 《儿童与社会》 / 1581次阅读 时间: 2020年4月07日
标签: INDUSTRY INFERIORITY 勤奋 自卑 3R原则
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勤奋对自卑INDUSTRY V. INFERIORITY

Thus the inner stage seems all set for 'entrance into life', except that life must first be school life, whether school is field or jungle or classroom. The child must forget past hopes and wishes, while his exuberant imagination is tamed and harnessed to the laws of impersonal things - even the three Rs. For before the child, psychologically already a rudimentary parent, can become a biological parent, he must begin to be a worker and potentia provider. With the oncoming latency period, the normally advanced child forgets, or rather sublimates, the necessity to 'make' people by direct attack or to become papa and mama in a hurry: he now learns to win recognition by producing things.He has mastered the ambulatory field and the organ modes. Hehas experienced a sense of finality regarding the fact that there isno workable future within the womb of his family, and thusbecomes ready to apply himself to given skills and tasks, whichgo far beyond the mere playful expression of his organ modes orthe pleasure in the function of his limbs. He develops a sense ofindustry - i.e., he adjusts himself to the inorganic laws of thetool world. He can become an eager and absorbed unit of aproductive situation. To bring a productive situation to completionis an aim which gradually supersedes the whims andwishes of play. His ego boundaries include his tools and skills:the work principle (Ives Hendrick) teaches him the pleasure ofwork completion by steady attention and persevering diligence.In all cultures, at this stage, children receive some systematicinstruction, although, as we saw in the chapter on American. Indians, it is by no means always in the kind of school whichliterate people must organize around special teachers who havelearned how to teach literacy. In preliterate people and in nonliterate pursuits much is learned from adults who becometeachers by dint of gift and inclination rather than by appointment andperhaps the greatest amount is learned from olderchildren. Thus the fundamentals of technology are developed, asthe child becomes ready to handle the utensils, the tools, and theweapons used by the big people. Literate people, with morespecialized careers, must prepare the child by teaching him thingswhich first of all make him literate, the widest basic educationfor the greatest number of possible careers. The more confusingspecialization becomes, however, the more indistinct are theeventual goals of initiative j and the more complicated socialreality, the vaguer are the father's and mother's role in it. Schoolseems to be a culture all by itself, with its own goals and limits, its achievements and disappointments.

内在阶段看起来都是为了“进入生活”而设。生活首先是学校生活,无论这学校指的是旷野、密林还是教室。儿童必须忘记过去的期望和心愿,他那充满生机的想象力会被客观事物的法则——包括“3R”原则,即减量化、再利用、再循环——所约束。由于在心理上已经是一位不成熟的父亲或母亲的孩子最终会成为一位真正的父亲或母亲,因此在这个阶段他们必须学习成为一名工人和有能力供养家庭的人。在即将到来的潜伏期,与其说孩子们忘记了,不如说他们升华了通过直接攻击“制造”人类或者快速成长为父母的需要。他们现在学会了通过制作东西来赢得赞誉。他们控制住了区域与器官模式。他们产生了关于某个事实的重要感觉,这个事实就是:在他们所在的家庭中没有切实可行的未来,因此他们必须准备好将自己投身于特定的技能和任务中,而这远远超过了器官模式的游戏性表达和肢体机能带来的快乐。他们发展了勤奋的理念,也就是说,他调整自我以便适应工具社会的人造法则。他们可以成为一个热心和专心致志的生产单位。想要达到高产状态的目标逐步取代了想要游戏的愿望。他们的自我包括了他们掌握的工具和技能。工作原则(艾维斯·亨德里克的术语)教会了他们借助专注力和勤奋,在工作中获得快乐。在所有的文化中,这一阶段的儿童都会接受一些系统性教学,虽然如同在美国印第安人中那样,这种系统性教学并不总是以学校——那些学过如何教授读写能力的老师将学生组织在一起,教授他们如何读写——的形式进行。在文字出现之前的人们以及不能读写的人们中,一些成年人凭借天赋和爱好,而不是任命,成了老师。很多知识是通过他们传授的。此外,大孩子教导小孩子的情况也很常见。由此,技术的基本原理得以发展,孩子们准备好操作那些大人们使用的器皿、工具以及武器。受过教育的人必须准备好教授孩子们各种事情,首先教他们读写。这是为他们选择各种可能从事的职业所进行的最广泛的基本教育。然而,专门化变得越令人困惑,主动性的最终目标就越不明确。社会现实越复杂,父母在其中的角色便越模糊。学校似乎成了一种独立的文化,有其独特的目标和限制,以及成就和失望。

The child's danger, at this stage, lies in a sense of inadequacy and inferiority. If he despairs of his tools and skills or of his status among his tool partners, he may be discouraged from mennncaltJ'lon with them and with a section of the tool world. To lose the hope of such 'industrial' association may pull him back to the more isolated, less tool-conscious familial rivalry of the oedipal time. The child despairs of his equipment in thetool world and in anatomy, and considers himself doomed to mediocrity or inadequacy. It is at this point that wider society becomes significant in its ways of admittmg the child to an understanding of meaningful roles in its technology and economy. Many a child's development is disrupted when family life has failed to prepare him for school life, or when school life fails to sustain the promises of earlier stages.

儿童在这一阶段的危险存在于不足感与自卑感之中。如果他们对自己的工具和技能,或者对自己在伙伴中的地位感到失望,那么他们便不会与这些工具和技能以及工具世界产生认同。丧失对这种“勤奋”联合的希望会令他们回撤至更加孤独的、缺乏工具意识俄狄浦斯时期的家庭竞争中去。儿童对于他们在工具世界的装备以及身体构造都感到失望,认为自己注定是平庸之辈或者能力不足之人。此时,广阔的社会变得富有意义,以它自己的方式承认儿童在技术和经济中成为具有理解力以及有意义的角色。当家庭生活无法为儿童上学做准备,或者当学校生活无法兑现早期阶段的承诺时,儿童的发展便会受阻。

Reagarding the period of a developing sense of industry, r have referred to outer and znner hmdrances in the use of new capacities but not to aggravations of new human drives, nor to submerged rages resulting from their frustration. This stage differs from the earlier ones in that it is not a swing from an inner upheaval to a new mastery. Freud calls it the latency stage because violent drives are normally dormant. But it is only a lull before the storm of puberty, when all the earlier drives re-emerge in a new combination, to be brought under the dominance of genitality.

在勤奋感正在发展的时期,我提到了在使用新的能力时所存在的外在和内在障碍,而这并不包括新的人类欲望的增强,也不包括源自挫折感的愤怒。这一阶段不同于早些时候,它不会在内在动荡中出现新的掌控力量。弗洛伊德称这一阶段为潜伏期,因为强大的驱力在这一阶段通常休眠了。但这只是青春期暴风骤雨来临前的喘息,到那时,所有的早期驱力都会以新的组合方式出现,被生殖力所支配。

On the other hand, this is socially a most decisive stage: since industry involves doing things beside and with others, a first sense of division oflabour and of differential opportunity, that is, a sense of the technologtcal ethos of a culture, develops at this time. We have pointed in the last section to the danger threatening individual and society where the schoolchild begins to feel that the colour of his skin, the background of his parents, or the fashion of his clothes rather than his wish and his will to learn will decide his worth as an apprentice, and thus his sense of identity - to which we must now turn. But there is another, more fundamental danger, namely man's restriction of himself and constriction of his horizons to include only his work to which, so the Book says, he has been sentenced after his expulsion from Paradise. If he accepts work as his only obligation, and 'what works' as his only criterion of worthwhileness, he may become the conformist and thoughtless slave of his technology and of those who are in a position to exploit it.

从另一方面来说,这是一个在社交上最具决定性的时期,因为勤奋——意味着在他人旁边以及同他人一起做事,是对劳动分工和机遇差别的最初意识,即对文化的技术理念的意识——在这一时期得到了发展。我们曾谈过如下情况对个人及社会的危害:儿童开始意识到自己皮肤的颜色、父母的背景或者衣服的样式(而不是他们的希望和意志)会决定他的个人价值以及身份。除此之外,还有另一种更深层的危险,即个体的自我限制。个体可能会将自己限制在工作中。如同布克所说,在被驱逐出天堂之后,人类即得到了判决。如果一个人把工作作为他唯一的义务,“行得通,做得到”作为判断他自身价值的唯一标准,那么他可能会变得墨守成规,成为他的技术和那些处于剥削他的技术地位上的人的没有思想的奴隶。

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TAG: INDUSTRY INFERIORITY 勤奋 自卑 3R原则
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