脑岛的功能
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脑岛的功能——
纽约时报
烦忧/simonwy_cas/心心水滴论坛

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脑岛是我关心的一个脑区。这篇科普性较强的文章也还行(文章后没附参考文献,不得不说价值大打折扣啊),逐字读完了全文,顺便根据自己的理解做了翻译,和楼主对照一下。

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Q&qvs!\0这篇文章的价值主要是可以扩大视野,但是对这篇文章全文翻译,不值。不过既然楼主翻译,我也顺便搭车翻译了;写综述可以快速扫扫看这个文章。心理学空间6|&X;m-o,m

g0`R_4`._!D'GQ0v8P0中文第一行是楼主翻译,第二行是我的翻译,大家有什么精妙翻译或者发现问题,不妨继续跟帖。心理学空间 x,F.r q$Z8\N8O}

M}QC[q.`P0Insula Is A Small Part of the Brain, But Has Profound Effects As Control-Center In Humans

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脑岛——大脑的一小部分,却对人类的控制中心起重要作用

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脑岛——人类大脑的一小部分,却作为控制中心发挥着重要作用心理学空间V)O MOq-K(tV

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By Sanjay Sharma, Section News心理学空间-?c-t7^^$x*t

I0TW.T'Gzv}0Posted on Fri Feb 23, 2007 at 06:17:21 PM EST

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The recent news about smoking was sensational: some people with damage to a prune-size slab of brain tissue called the insula were able to give up cigarettes instantly. Suppose scientists could figure out how to tweak the insula without damaging it. They might be able to create that famed and elusive free lunch ? an effortless way to kick the cigarette habit.

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M7o F9ei'~ M0最近新闻说吸烟是耸人听闻的:一些脑岛受损的病人可以马上戒掉烟瘾。如果科学家能想出在不损伤脑岛的前提下扭曲它,那么可能可以使大部分人无需努力就戒掉烟瘾了。心理学空间uI4^iDL@D W4@

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最近有一条关于吸烟的新闻非常震撼:一些脑岛受损的病人可以马上戒掉烟瘾。如果科学家能想出在不损伤脑岛的前提下挤捏它,那么众多烟民可能就会享受到翘首已久的免费午餐,无需努力就戒掉烟瘾了。心理学空间 ?6x$ic/O

O4S| G NeC0That dream, which may not be too far off, puts the insula in the spotlight. What is the insula and how could it possibly exert such profound effects on human behavior?

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这个看似不远的愿景,将脑岛变成了大众的焦点。脑岛是什么?如何对人类的行为产生深远的影响?

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AP-vmU q+EEF6c c0•    According to neuroscientists who study it, the insula is a long-neglected brain region that has emerged as crucial to understanding what it feels like to be human.心理学空间:blJn sS#v:QF"F

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•    根据神经科学家的解释,脑岛是一个长期被忽视的,但对于理解人类行为十分重要的脑区

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)A(XR5w#tn?k0•    They say it is the wellspring of social emotions, things like lust and disgust, pride and humiliation, guilt and atonement. It helps give rise to moral intuition, empathy and the capacity to respond emotionally to music.心理学空间3Z$J{C!v

)r/B'Z6|7Bw0Q~0•    神经科学家们坦言,脑岛是性欲、恶心、骄傲、羞耻、内疚和补偿等社会情绪的源泉。脑岛会引起道德感、共情以及对音乐的情绪反应。

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•    Its anatomy and evolution shed light on the profound differences between humans and other animals.心理学空间 B^2y@7M*@Q5b

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•    脑岛的进化对人类与其他动物的差异产生了重要的作用。心理学空间L-u9xQO[ Wz*H%X

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研究脑岛的结构和进化为研究人和其他动物的巨大差异带来了启示。

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The insula also reads body states like hunger and craving and helps push people into reaching for the next sandwich, cigarette or line of cocaine. So insula research offers new ways to think about treating drug addiction, alcoholism, anxiety and eating disorders.心理学空间+ZyUe|_Ef A

j$X'gTY q\z0脑岛会感知躯体状态,如饥饿、拿到三明治、香烟或者可卡因。因此,脑岛的研究为治疗药物依赖、酒精症、焦虑和进食障碍提供了新的途径。心理学空间's&D%[_vCS

8zOg8z2z(l4o~%G;H0脑岛会感知躯体状态,如饥饿和渴求,驱使人去拿取更多的三明治、香烟或者可卡因。因此,脑岛的研究为治疗药物依赖、酒精症、焦虑和进食障碍提供了新的思路。

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Of course, so much about the brain remains to be discovered that the insula?s role may be a minor character in the play of the human mind. It is just now coming on stage.

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D ~4AiP/M}ZnCy0当然,关于脑岛的研究还在继续。心理学空间BM MW%{%[u

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"W/`kO7[p0The activity of the insula in so many areas is something of a puzzle. ?People have had a hard time conceptualizing what the insula does,? said Dr. Martin Paulus, a psychiatrist at the University of California, San Diego.

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q'oWr5T3T,t3ftm0If it does everything, what exactly is it that it does?

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For example, the insula ?lights up? in brain scans when people crave drugs, feel pain, anticipate pain, empathize with others, listen to jokes, see disgust on someone?s face, are shunned in a social settings, listen to music, decide not to buy an item, see someone cheat and decide to punish them, and determine degrees of preference while eating chocolate.心理学空间GI l9a!r JI&y

&HIv9DrttWp-|C0当人们想吸毒时、有痛感时、预期到痛感时、对别人产生共情时、听笑话时、感觉恶心时,遭受社会拒绝时、听音乐时、买东西时、看别人欺骗时、决定惩罚别人时、决定吃巧克力的偏好时,脑岛都会发亮。心理学空间&[k x;UKK

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当人们想吸毒时、有痛感时、预期到痛感时、对别人产生共情时、听笑话时、看到别人露出恶心表情时,遭受社会性忽略被冷场时、听音乐时、决定不买某个东西时、看别人欺骗并决定惩罚别人时、评定巧克力偏好时,扫描他们的大脑会发现脑岛都会强烈激活。心理学空间,E5s cyS

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Damage to the insula can lead to apathy, loss of libido and an inability to tell fresh food from rotten.心理学空间H1`*Uy Q K

'd)Ae*R\#{0脑岛的损伤会引起情感淡漠、欲望减少、无法辨别新鲜与变质的食品。心理学空间9^(ES.J&u4Y.zjp

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The bottom line, according to Dr. Paulus and others, is that mind and body are integrated in the insula. It provides unprecedented insight into the anatomy of human emotions.

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Dr. Paulus等人总结说,心灵与躯体在脑岛整合,脑岛的研究对人类情绪的洞察是前所未有的。心理学空间$r9RW.Z$ld%g

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Of course, like every important brain structure, the insula ? there are actually two, one on each side of the brain ? does not act alone. It is part of multiple circuits.心理学空间6R3^Mjy'B

ELuXJ(o2y'Q'J@h5`0和其他脑区一样,脑岛也是两个半球各有一个,是各种神经通路的一部分。

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The insula itself is a sort of receiving zone that reads the physiological state of the entire body and then generates subjective feelings that can bring about actions, like eating, that keep the body in a state of internal balance. Information from the insula is relayed to other brain structures that appear to be involved in decision making, especially the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices.心理学空间kf#V0BO

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脑岛本身接受躯体生理状态的信息,然后产生主观体验,比如进食以保持体内的平衡。脑岛的信息再传导至其他决策相关的脑区,尤其是前扣带回和前额叶皮层。

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,W.tVoH;r0The insula was long ignored for two reasons, researchers said. First, because it is folded and tucked deep within the brain, scientists could not probe it with shallow electrodes. It took the invention of brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, to watch it in action.

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h;} si?M5x'A1J"`s0脑岛以前被忽略有两大原因:第一,脑岛深居在大脑内侧,科学家无法直接用电极探测,需要采用脑成像技术(如fMRI),观察它的反应。

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Second, the insula was ?assigned to the brain?s netherworld,? said John Allman, a neuroscientist at the California Institute of Technology. It was mistakenly defined as a primitive part of the brain involved only in functions like eating and sex. Ambitious scientists studied higher, more rational parts of the brain, he said.

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k_,\9Z.^]U0z4M0第二,脑岛曾被误认为是大脑的原始部分,只负责食与性。科学家们以前研究更高级,更理性的脑区。心理学空间y A up8p8u/h:_,A

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;GE8aPI7D!`0The insula emerged from darkness a decade ago when Antonio Damasio, a neuroscientist now at the University of Southern California, developed the so-called somatic marker hypothesis, the idea that rational thinking cannot be separated from feelings and emotions. The insula, he said, plays a starring role.

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Another neuroscientist, Arthur D. Craig at the Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix, went on to describe exactly the circuitry that connects the body to the insula.

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南加州大学的神经科学家Antonio Damasio提出一套所谓的somatic marker hypothesis,将脑岛从黑暗中拉出来的。SMH认为理性思考不能独立于体验与情绪,脑岛在其中起着重要的作用。另一位神经科学家Arthur D. Craig继续描述躯体与脑岛联系的神经通路。

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According to Dr. Craig, the insula receives information from receptors in the skin and internal organs. Such receptors are nerve cells that specialize in different senses. Thus there are receptors that detect heat, cold, itch, pain, taste, hunger, thirst, muscle ache, visceral sensations and so-called air hunger, the need to breathe. The sense of touch and the sense of the body?s position in space are routed to different brain regions, he said.心理学空间] F R`w#_NW;a|

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根据Craig博士的研究,脑岛接受来自内脏与皮肤感受器的信号。这些感受器特异于某一种感觉,包括冷热感、痒、痛、味觉、饥饿、口渴、肌肉疼痛、内脏感觉以及空气感觉。触觉和躯体对位置的感觉则在其他的脑区。心理学空间 \kSQ,y B"?b

?}z*z6Z;\@Qw0根据Craig博士(痛领域大牛,我一个师姐在其下做猴子的电生理研究)的研究,脑岛接受来自内脏与皮肤感受器的信号。这些感受器特异于某一种感觉,包括冷、热、痒、痛、味觉、饥饿、口渴、肌肉疼痛、内脏感觉以及气饥(air hunger)的感觉。触觉和躯体的空间位置感觉感受器则投射到其他的脑区。心理学空间!V R"^s1\ ]!q]L

3C3Q5?'xm,f SP0All mammals have insulas that read their body condition, Dr. Craig said. Information about the status of the body?s tissues and organs is carried from the receptors along distinct spinal pathways, into the brain stem and up to the posterior insula in the higher brain or cortex.心理学空间Q&J.|MBy2k

o#^8X hV0所有哺乳动物都有感知躯体状态的脑岛。躯体组织与器官状态的各种信息通过不同的脊髓通路,到达脑干,再经过后脑岛,然后到达高级脑区。

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As such, all mammals have emotions, defined as sensations that provoke motivations. If an animal is hot, it seeks shade. If hungry, it looks for food. If hurt, it licks the wound.心理学空间(JX7IW _:|WCY y

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如果将情绪定义为引发动机的感觉,那所有哺乳动物都算得上有情绪。如果动物热了,它会找影子;如果饿了,它会找食物;如果它受伤了,它会舔伤口。心理学空间w1ImEl,vD\P

o.K'y6v4NVO%B0如果将情绪定义为引发动机的感觉,那所有哺乳动物都算得上有情绪。如果动物热了,它会找遮荫处;如果饿了,它会找食物;如果它受伤了,它会舔伤口。心理学空间$NP D&m"V S _8X9P

1U,Z(vfW I9y0But animals are not thought to have subjective feelings in the way that humans do, Dr. Craig said. Humans, and to a lesser degree the great apes, have evolved two innovations to their insulas that take this system of reading body states to a new level.心理学空间K2gm2[E+f9A

0k9I4c%~[2go0但动物并没有人类所拥有的主观体验。人类与最亲的猿的脑岛在进化中有两大突破。心理学空间4L v3a4E;z)~Sf5|

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One involves circuitry, the other a brand new type of brain cell.心理学空间 G{&gy/|

![+L,M%O r n;gb5gV0In humans, information about the body?s state takes a slightly different route inside the brain, picking up even more signals from the gut, the heart, the lungs and other internal organs. Then the human brain takes an extra step, Dr. Craig said. The information on bodily sensations is further routed to the front part of the insula, especially on the right side, which has undergone a huge expansion in humans and apes.心理学空间)d'dm5mz |Kz:j

9t2?:v:l9o0首先是通路。人类采用一条不同的通路,捕获肠、心脏和肺以及内部器官更多的信息。这些信息传送到脑岛的前部,尤其是右侧脑岛在进化中得到了巨大的扩展。

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首先是通路有所不同,其次是出现了全新类型的脑细胞。人类采用一条不同的通路,接受肠、心脏和肺以及其他内部器官的信息。这些信息传送到脑岛的前部,尤其是右侧脑岛前部;值得一提的是,人类和猿类的脑岛体积在进化中得到了巨大的扩展。(不是右侧脑岛得到了巨大的发展,楼主可能看的太快,没理清句子结构。理由:第一,人类左右岛叶体积相仿;第二,如果要表达是右侧巨大扩展,则句子应该是这样的:The information on bodily sensations is further routed to the front part of the insula, especially on the right side which/that has undergone a huge expansion in humans and apes. )心理学空间%bM7R0n4}.P2OMB

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It is in the frontal insula, Dr. Craig said, that simple body states or sensations are recast as social emotions. A bad taste or smell is sensed in the frontal insula as disgust. A sensual touch from a loved one is transformed into delight.

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在前脑岛,躯体感觉与状态被重写为社会情绪。不好的味道与气味会被前脑岛知觉为恶心,对爱人的抚摸会被转换为快乐。

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The frontal insula is where people sense love and hate, gratitude and resentment, self-confidence and embarrassment, trust and distrust, empathy and contempt, approval and disdain, pride and humiliation, truthfulness and deception, atonement and guilt.

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前脑岛是人们感觉爱与恨、感激与怨恨、自信与尴尬、信任与不信任、共情与蔑视、赞许与不屑、骄傲与羞耻、真实与欺骗、补偿与内疚的地方。心理学空间^;T'V%H0m1e`!Ko`

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y!wR!sl0People who are better at reading these sensations ? a quickened heart beat, a flushed face, slow breathing ? score higher on psychological tests of empathy, researchers have found. The second major modification to the insula is a type of cell found in only humans, great apes, whales and possibly elephants, Dr. Allman said. Humans have by far the greatest number of these cells, which are called VENs, short for Von Economo neurons, named for the scientist who first described them in 1925. VENs are large cigar-shaped cells tapered at each end, and they are found exclusively in the frontal insula and anterior cingulate cortex.

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谁会对这种感觉更灵敏呢?加速的心跳、涨红的脸、缓慢的呼吸?研究者发现共情测试的分值高者这种感觉更灵敏。心理学空间UDrL5Z

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第二个巨大的改变是一种全新的脑岛细胞只存在于人类、类人猿、鲸和大象。人类的这类VENs(Von Economo neurons的简称)细胞最多。VENs大量存在于前脑岛和前扣带回。心理学空间"{/Jj5V3n(Y

Z(gQFl%F?0第二个巨大的改变是新型的神经元,这种神经元只存在于人类、类人猿、鲸和大象。人类的这类VENs(Von Economo neurons的简称)细胞最多,体积大,呈雪茄样,中间大,往两端逐渐变细。VENs只存在于前脑岛和前扣带回。心理学空间p+I3F]NyN(YA K

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Exactly what VENs are doing within this critical circuit is not yet known, Dr. Allman said. But they are in the catbird seat for turning feelings and emotions into actions and intentions.

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VENs在重要神经通路中的工作机制尚未可知,但他们在情绪和体验转化为行动和意图中十分重要。

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0aigsg6Cq? Y0VENs在重要神经通路中的具体负责什么尚未可知,但他们在情绪和体验转化为行动和意图中十分重要。

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q~5kKn;j0The human insula, with its souped-up anatomy, is also important for processing events that have yet to happen, Dr. Paulus said. ?When you decide to go outside on a cold day, your body gets ready before you hit the cold air,? he said. ?It starts pumping blood to where you need it and adjusts your metabolism. Your insula tells you what it will feel like before you step outside.?心理学空间3N_{.vy#b~ O?

nN$x*mPP+xcYEq0人类的脑岛在加工未发生的事件时十分重要。当你决定是在寒冷的一天出去,你的躯体在你接触冷天气之前就做好了准备,比如血压升高以提高新陈代谢。你的脑岛告诉你外面的冷天会是什么感觉。心理学空间EO6O)sx,U't

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:al2tb*hpb"N6D0The same goes for drug addicts. When an addict is confronted with sights, sounds, smells, situations or other stimuli associated with drug use, the insula is activated before using the drug.

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n\uixy.WF-@J0药物成瘾也是同样道理。当成瘾者面对与用药有关的光、声音、气味和情景时,脑岛会在用药前就激活。(条件反射的脑机制?)心理学空间7sV/G1VBe+|

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同上 (这个结果应该是把条件反射的影响剔除掉了。比如,加一个条件反射对照组,减去即可)心理学空间Kc%EP K

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?If you give cocaine to an addict, you are affecting their brain?s reward system, but this is not what drives the person to keep using cocaine,? Dr. Paulus said. The craving is what gets people to use.心理学空间7r.W$?;Pb

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如果你对可卡因上瘾,你会改变可卡因的大脑奖赏系统,但这并不是使用可卡因的驱动力。

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f ~([pb0R7g"N(L.H0如果你给瘾君子可卡因,你会影响到他们的奖赏系统,但这不是驱使他们保持使用可卡因的原因。心理上的渴求才是真正的元凶。心理学空间J"X"m mZ$l$dt O0q6H

0a2g X:p-j Mv0For example, smokers enjoy whole-body effects, said Nasir Naqvi, a student at the University of Iowa Medical Scientist Training Program, who was the lead author of the recent article on smoking. It is not just nicotine binding to parts of the brain, he said, but sensations ? heart rate, blood pressure, a tickle in the lungs, a taste in the mouth, the position of the hands, all the rituals.

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比如,吸烟者喜欢整个躯体的效果。尼古丁捆绑的并不只是大脑的某一部分,还有心跳、血压、肺部运动、味觉以及手的位置所有与吸烟有关的感觉。心理学空间y8o'x~ e#P3J

5K6`.iuj8Z }0比如,吸烟者喜欢吸烟时整个身体的感觉。尼古丁捆绑的并不只是大脑的某一部分,还有心跳、血压、肺部运动、味觉以及手的位置等等这一切在吸烟过程中的感觉。心理学空间Ddr4O v,`)|

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The insula?s importance makes it an ideal target for many kinds of treatment, Dr. Paulus said, including drugs and sophisticated biofeedback. But methods to quell insular activity must be approached carefully, he said. People might lose the craving to smoke, drink alcohol or take other drugs, but they could simultaneously lose interest in sex, food and work.心理学空间O(U!}&B`"P(j0n"?

r-zTS&a{r0脑岛的重要性使它成为多种治疗的理想目标,这包括药物和精细的生物反馈。但抑制脑岛活性的方法必须要慎之又慎。因为人们在失去吸烟、喝酒、嗑药的渴求后,可能同时失去了做爱、进食和工作的兴趣。

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q;GRi6gx0As clinicians explore the possibilities, Dr. Craig is thinking about the insula in grander terms.心理学空间 G.D ^u%AmY$\-|P

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临床学家们在探索这种可能性,Craig博士在思考脑岛更重大的作用。心理学空间@&{,|YU&kYx8n6H3q)~

a2s%y*l(n!YY0当临床工作者在继续探索可能的治疗方案时,Craig博士在思考脑岛的更重大的角色。

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G PhW#g(BU3J0For example, lesions in the frontal insula can wipe out the ability to appreciate the emotional content of music. It may also be involved in the human sense of the progress of time, since it can create an anticipatory signal of how people may feel as opposed to how they feel now. Intensely emotional moments can affect our sense of time. It may stand still, and that may be happening in the insula, a crossroads of time and desire.心理学空间%a'W oq*m5Z+p

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比如,前脑岛损失病人会丧失对音乐的情感欣赏能力。人们对时间的感觉可能也需要脑岛。因为脑岛可以产生人们对他们未来感受的预期,这与他们现在的感觉相对。强烈的情绪体验时刻会影响我们对时间的感觉。脑岛可能是时间与欲望的交接点。

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IE1h&?%BOc7e0比如,前脑岛损伤病人会无法体验到音乐的情感色彩;此外,因为人类可以在当下某一时刻通过预期可以体验到将来某一时刻的体验,所以人们对时间的感觉可能也需要脑岛。强烈的情绪体验可以影响我们对时间的感觉。人类可以感觉到时间停止,而这可能就发生在脑岛-同时负责时间与欲望的脑区。

"tX4h^1y;A0www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
TAG: 脑岛
«认识胼胝体 神经心理学
《神经心理学》
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作者: 烦忧/simonwy_cas / 1055次阅读
时间: 2017年11月27日
来源: 心心水滴论坛
标签: 脑岛
路径 > 心理学 > 心理学分支 > 神经心理学