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IPA区域间精神分析百科辞典:Containment涵容:涵容者-被涵容者

陈明 译 2017-9-09
IPA

CONTAINMENT: CONTAINER-CONTAINED
涵容:涵容者-被涵容者
【译注】CONTAINMENT也有遏制之意,即也可以翻译成遏制:遏制者-被遏制者
Tri-Regional Entry
Inter-Regional Consultants:
 Louis Brunet (North America);
Vera Regina Fonseca(Latin America);
Dimitris-James Jackson (Europe)
Coordinating Co-Chair: Eva D. Papiasvili (North America)
陈明 译

I. DEFINITION
1、定义

Wilfred R. Bion’s concept of Container-Contained was meant to analogize the situation of the analytic couple in terms of the mother-infant nursing situation. It designates the mother not only as the donor of soothing and fulfilling milk, but also it is a receptive organ which receives the infant’s emotional pain and is able to sooth that pain for the infant and restore it to life-size management. In Bion’s terms, most generally, it represents the transformation of pain from O (in its meaning of nameless dread) to K (knowledge), as in “now I can think about the unthinkable!”

威尔弗雷德·拜昂的涵容者-被涵容者概念的意涵是根据母婴护理的情景类推出的分析双方的情景。不仅指派母亲作为慰藉和充实奶水的提供者,而且母亲要成为一个有接受能力的器官,接受婴儿情绪痛苦,并且有能力慰藉婴儿的痛苦同时将其恢复到和真人一样的管理之中。在拜昂的术语中,一般而言,它代表了痛苦从O(其意义是无法命名的恐惧)到K(知识)的转化,如同”现在我可以思考那些不可思议之事了“一样。

From the evolution of theory point of view, the concept presents an extension of the theory of Projective Identification (see the separate entry PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION), from being a theory of primitive fantasy and defense into a theory of an archaic form of communication necessary for the development of thinking.

从理论观点的演变来看,这个概念代表了投射性认同理论的延伸(参见条目投射性认同),从一个作为原始幻想和防御的理论,转化成了一种思维发展所必要的古老沟通形式的理论。

As a relational model of mental functioning, the Containment process extends a linear reciprocal interplay between the pair of Container-Contained, with the following steps: a mental state (‘content’) is communicated from a sender to a receiver; the receiver potentially ‘contains’ and transforms it through psychic work; the transformed content, together with the ‘function of containing’ itself may be then re-introjected by the sender.

涵容的过程作为心智功能的关系模型,在涵容者-被涵容者之间扩展了一个线性的相互交互作用,步骤如下:一个发送者向接受者传达了一种心智的状态(“内容”);涵容者通过心理工作潜在地“涵容”并转化之;这个转化的内容和“涵容的功能”本身可能一起被发送者重新内摄了。

While the developmental prototype of this model is the mother-infant relationship, the concept is also applicable as a special kind of unconscious communication that takes place in both dyadic relationships and in groups as well as in the psychoanalytic process. It is also applied for understanding the intrapsychic process where the individual tries to contain, convert/transform and convey his/her emotions in words.

虽然该模型的发展原型是母婴关系,但是这一概念也适用于一发生在双方的二价关系以及精神分析动力过程之中的一种特殊无意识沟通。它也适用于理解心灵的内部过程,个体试图在这个过程中以话语涵容、转换/转化和传递他/她的情绪。

In a clinical situation, the process of Containment has a special significance for understanding psychoanalytic processes and the development of thinking/symbolizing. Technically, it means more than silently bearing the infant/patient’s screams, or other displays of pain. Containment involves identification, transformation and interpretation in dealing with the pain when possible.

在一个临床情景中,涵容的过程对于理解精神分析过程以及思考/象征化的发展有着特殊的意义。从技术上讲,这意味着默默地忍受着婴儿/病人的尖叫,或其他痛苦的呈现。涵容涉及了认同、转化以及在可能的时刻处理痛苦的诠释。

The above multidimensional definition reflects, extrapolates from, and expands on the regional dictionaries and encyclopedias across the three continents (Lopez-Corvo, 2003; Skelton, 2006; Auchincloss and Samberg, 2012).

上述涵盖了诸多方面的定义反映、推断、扩展了三大洲地区的词典和百科全书。(Lopez-Corvo, 2003; Skelton, 2006; Auchincloss and Samberg, 2012).

II. ORIGINS OF THE CONCEPT
2、概念的起源

The concept has its roots in the 1940’s England with the clinical research on schizophrenia (psychotic thought disorder), studied by Melanie Klein and her followers Herbert Rosenfeld, Hanna Segal and Wilfred R. Bion. (The term may also link to WR Bion’s experience as a war time tank commander. Containment as a military term implies restricting and minimizing conflict on the battlefield without necessarily eradicating it, thus making it more manageable.)

这个概念根植于1940年代在英格兰进行的精神分裂的研究(精神分裂症思维障碍),研究由梅兰妮·克莱茵和他的追随者赫伯特·罗森费尔德、汉娜·西格尔和阿尔弗雷德·拜昂进行。(这个术语也和作为坦克指挥官的拜昂的经验有关。涵容作为一个军事术语,意味着在战场上限制和减少冲突而不需要消灭它,从而使得其更易于管理。)【译注:Containment在军事语言中翻译成“遏制”。】

Klein’s “Notes on Schizoid Mechanisms” (1946) elucidated her view on the pathological fixation point of schizophrenia in the primitive early phase of infant life, from birth to 3 months, what she called the “paranoid-schizoid” position. In this position part object relations, persecutory and annihilation anxiety, and primitive defense mechanisms such as splitting, projective identification, denial and omnipotence are active. Rosenfeld (1959, 1969) particularly deepened the understanding of projective identification in his clinical studies (1950-1970). He revealed the process in the patient’s infantile, primitive world: patients project the inner objects, part objects and conflictual parts of self into the object – the mother’s breast and body/the therapist – to handle them through the object, subsequently making them part of the self by introjecting them back, and identifying with them. This projection and re-introjection process became a fundamental part of Bion’s research on container-contained.

克莱茵在《对分裂机制的若干评论》(1946)中阐明了她关于精神分裂症患者从出生到3个月的婴儿早期之病理性固着的观点,她称之为”偏执-分裂“位。在这个位置的部分客体关系中,活跃着迫害和毁灭焦虑,以及诸如分裂、投射性认同、否认和理想化这些原始的防御机制。Rosenfeld (1959, 1969) 在他的临床研究(1950-1970)中详细深入地解释(understanding)了投射性认同。他在病人婴儿期的原始世界中揭示了这一过程:病人将内部客体,部分客体以及具有冲突的自我投射入了——母亲的乳房和身体/治疗师——通过客体控制他们,随后,通过将他们内摄回来,让他们成为自我的一部分,并且认同他们。这种投射和内摄过程成为了拜昂关于涵容者-被涵容者研究的一个基础部分。

The first incipient references to the Container-Contained theory appeared in Bion’s 1950’s writings, particularly in The Development of Schizophrenic Thought (1956, in: Bion, 1984); Differentiation between psychotic and non-psychotic personality (1957, in: Bion, 1984); On Hallucinosis (1958, in: Bion, 1984), and Attacks on Linking (1959). Making a reference to the baby’s relationship to the breast, within Melanie Klein’s theory on projective identification (Klein, 1946), he highlights the importance of the adaptation between the mother/her breast and the baby, in confronting the disintegration and death anxiety that the newborn experiences. The satisfactory presence of the container breast is the key when it comes to facing emotions and modifying them, allowing for emotional learning. Thus, Bion’s formulations of the projective identification concept as a primitive defense of the ego evolve into a description of a normative developmental realistic projective identification, implicit in the container – contained model.

涵容者-被涵容者理论最初是在拜昂1950年的论文中出现的,尤其是在《关于精神分裂症患者思想的发展》(1956, in: Bion, 1984);《区分精神病性和非精神病性人格》(1957, in: Bion, 1984);在《幻觉》 (1958, in: Bion, 1984),《对联结的攻击》之中。借鉴于婴儿与乳房的关系,在梅兰妮·克莱茵关于投射性认同理论中(Klein, 1946),他强调了新生儿面对体验到的失整合和死亡焦虑时,母亲/她的乳房和婴儿之间的适应性改变的重要性。着令满意的容器乳房之存在是面对情绪和改变情绪、以及允许情绪学习的关键。因此,比昂的投射性认同的概念,作为一种原始的防御机制逐渐发展成为一个规范成熟的、栩栩如生的投射性认同之描述,隐含在涵容者-被涵容者的模型之中。

III. CONTAINER-CONTAINED (CONTAINMENT): EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT IN BION
3、涵容者-被涵容者(涵容):拜昂概念的演化

In his 1959 paper “Attacks on Linking” (Bion, 1959), Bion described his experience with a psychotic patient who relied on projective identification to evacuate parts of his personality into the analyst, where, from the patient’s perspective, if they were allowed to repose long enough, they would undergo modification by the analyst’s psyche and then could safely be re-introjected. Bion describes how when the patient was left feeling that the analyst had evacuated the patient’s projections too quickly, that is that the feelings were not modified, the patient responded by attempting to (re)project them into the analyst with increased desperation and violence. Bion links this clinical process to the patient’s experience with his mother who could not tolerate taking in the infant’s projections and who did not contain the infant’s projected fears. Bion suggests that “an understanding mother is able to experience the feeling of dread that this baby was striving to deal with by projective identification and yet retain a balanced outlook” (Bion, 1959, p. 103-104).

拜昂在1959年的《对联接的攻击》中描述了他与一个精神病患者的体验,这个患者借助于投射性认同,将他的部分人格排除进入了分析师之内。在那里,病人的看法是,如果允许他们(在分析师那里)长时间的休息,他们能承受得起分析师心灵对其的改良,并且随后可以被安全的内摄。拜昂描述了当分析师过快的排除了病人的投射物之时,病人不舒服的情绪感受是怎样的,这种情绪感受是未被改良的,病人试图以增强了绝望和暴力将他们(再次)投射进入分析师来回应。拜昂将这一过程相关于病人和病人妈妈的体验,这个妈妈无法接纳(taking in)婴儿投射物,而且没有遏制(contain)婴儿投射的恐惧。拜昂认为“一个通情达理的妈妈有能力体验这种婴儿正在用投射性认同努力对付的恐惧情绪感受,并且还保有了平衡的前景”。

In 1962, in his publication “Learning from Experience” and in a paper “A Theory of Thinking”, Bion (1962 a,b) develops these ideas further, describing the mother’s receptive state of mind when she can take in and contain the infant’s projected terror as reverie. By adding the idea of maternal reverie to the idea of projective identification, Bion includes how the environment, through primary relations, affects intrapsychic developments. Reverie refers to a receptive mental state where the mother unconsciously identifies and responds to what is projected by the child. Through maternal reverie the mother creates a new understanding of what the child tries to communicate. The mother transforms what Bion calls the beta elements into alpha elements, which can then be communicated back to the child. This becomes the first definition of the model Container-Contained. Specifically, the process involves the following steps: First, the mother, in a state of reverie receives and takes in those unbearable aspects of self, objects, affects and unprocessed sensory experiences (beta elements) of her infant that have been projected into her in phantasy. Second, she must bear the full effects of these projections upon her mind and body as long as need be in order to think about and to understand them, a process Bion refers to as transformation. Next, having thus transformed her baby’s experience in her own mind, she must gradually return them to the infant in detoxified and digestible form and (at such time as these may be of use to him) as demonstrated in her attitude and the way in which she handles him. In analysis, Bion refers to this last segment of the process as publication, what we commonly refer to as interpretation. The ability to ‘contain’ assumes a mother who has boundaries and sufficient internal space to accommodate her own anxieties as well as those acquired in relation to her infant; a mother who has a well-developed capacity to bear pain, to contemplate, to think and to convey what she thinks in a way that is meaningful to her infant. A mother who is herself separate, intact, receptive, capable of reverie and appropriately giving is thus suitable for introjection as a ‘containing’ object and little by little, over time, the infant’s identification with and assimilation of such an object leads to increasing mental space, the development of a capacity to make meaning, and the on-going evolution of a mind that can think for itself. This is what Bion came to call alpha function.

拜昂在1959年的书籍《经验中学习》和论文“思考的理论”中进一步发展了这些想法,描述了母亲在她能够接纳并涵容作为遐想的婴儿投射恐惧之时,其心智的乐于接受的(receptive)状态。拜昂通过将母亲遐想的观点加入到投射性认同的观点,包含了环境是如何经由原始的关系影响心灵内部的发展(的观点)。白日梦所指的一种接受的心理状态是母亲无意识地认同并回应了孩子的投射物。通过母亲的遐想,母亲创造了对儿童试图共同之物的新的理解。母亲将拜昂所称的贝塔元素转化为可以有效的反馈给孩子的阿尔法元素。这成为了涵容者-被涵容者模式的第一个定义,该过程涉及了以下的步骤:母亲在遐想的状态收到并接纳了她的婴儿的自体、客体、情感以及没有处理过的感官体验(贝塔元素)的那些无法忍受的方方面面。其次她必须在他的心智和身体上承受这些投身物的全部的效应,尽可能的根据需要去思考和理解他们,即拜昂所指的转化的过程。接下来,就这样把她婴儿的体验转化为了她自己的心智,她必须按部就班的,以解毒的和可吸收和的形式,并且(在她可以利用这些的时候)以她的态度所示范的、以及她对待的方式,将这些返还给婴儿。正如拜昂在出版物中所指的、我们通常称之为诠释的这个最后阶段的过程。“涵容”的能力假设了一位有边界和内部空间的妈妈,容纳了如同那些和她有关的婴儿一样,容纳了她自己的焦虑;这位妈妈很好的发展了忍受痛苦、默想、思考以及以一种对婴儿有益的方式转换她的想法之能力的母亲。这位妈妈,分离于自己,原封不动的、善于接受的、能够遐想的,并且作为一个“涵容者”的客体为内摄给予了如此适当的稳定的母亲。一点点的,随着时间的推移,婴儿对这样的客体的认同和同化会导致心智空间的增加,能力的发展制造了意义,以及持续不断心智演化。这个心智,能够独立的思。这就是拜昂说称的阿尔法功能。

In his 1963 “Elements of Psychoanalysis”, Bion considers the dynamic relationship between the Container and Contained, marked by abstract signs of ♂ and ♀, to be the first element of psychoanalysis.The ♂ (Contained) here has a penetrating quality and the ♀ (Container) a receptive/receiving quality.In this context, ♀and ♂ are not restricted to the specific sexual meaning, but are without any specific sexual connotation.They represent variables or unknowns: the ♀ and ♂ functions present in all relationships, independently of gender.The ♂ (Contained) penetrates the ♀ (Container), who receives it and interacts with it, leading to a creation of a new product.The use of the ♂-♀ symbols highlights the biological nature of the mind, and also includes Freud’s and Klein’s concepts on sexuality and oedipal configuration.In his later writings, Bion emphasizes the reciprocity between the two parts, and the potential towards growth and interchange between them.The paradox of the dynamic relationship of Container-Contained lies in its reciprocal mutuality: Something that contains and something that is contained also perform the functions of mutually containing and being contained.Developmentally, this means that the breast as a container for the baby's anxieties can also be the reverse: the baby as a container for some aspects of mother′s personality.

拜昂1963年在《分析的元素》中认为,涵容者和被涵容之间的动力关系以♂和♀的抽象符号为标记,这是精神分析的第一元素。在这里,♂(被涵容者)有着贯穿的品质,♀(涵容者)有着能够涵容的/正在涵容着的品质。在这样的背景之下,♀和♂并不局限于具体的性意义,但是都没有任何具体的性的含义。他们代表了变量或未知的事物:♀和♂的功能呈现在所有的关系之中,独立的性别之中。♂(被涵容者)穿透了♀(涵容者),后者接纳了前者,并且与之交流沟通,使得新的产物得以创造。♂-♀符号的作用强调了心智的生物学相关性,也包括佛洛伊德和克莱因关于性和俄狄浦斯结构的概念。在他后来的文章中,拜昂强调了这两部分之间的相互作用,以及它们之间生长和交流的潜力。涵容者-被涵容者动力关系的悖论存在于他们互惠互利的相互关系之间:涵容的东西和被涵容的东西也执行者相互涵容和被涵容的功能。发展性的观点是,作为婴儿焦虑之涵容者乳房的意义也可以是相反的:婴儿是母亲人格一些面向的涵容者。

Later, in the clinical context, this reciprocity is highlighted: “The clue lies in the observation of the fluctuations which make the analyst at one moment ♀ and the analysand ♂, and at the next reverse the roles…” (Bion, 1970, p.108).

拜昂后来强调了临床背景中的这种互惠关系:“线索位于一瞬间分析师的♀角色和分析者的♂角色的变幻,并在下一秒角色发生了反转…”(Bion, 1970, p.108)。

Throughout, Bion stresses that “to Contain” implies an activity and a process that allows for the formation of thought and its transformation into words; this is in opposition to the trivialized, constricted use of containing and receiving as merely passive receptivity. The full exposition of complexity and many facets and processes of transformation are at the center of his 1965 publication “Transformations: Change from learning to growth.” Here, Bion introduces a meta-theoretical concept of ‘O’, as the beginning but also potentially the end point of multidirectional transformative processes. It encompasses the unthinkable ‘nameless dread’, ‘beta elements’, ‘things in themselves’; but also the ‘Ultimate Reality’, ‘reverence’ and ‘awe’ (Bion, 1965; Grotstein, 2011a, p. 506).

拜昂自始至终强调,“涵容”意味着允许思想形成并转化为话语的一种活动和过程;这是作为被动感受性地、轻视地、收缩地接受利用涵容和接纳的对立面。充分阐述的复杂性以及转化的诸多方面与过程,是他在1965出版的《转化:从学习到成长的变化》之中的中心思想。在这本书里,拜昂介绍了“O”的元理论概念,以此作为开始,O也可能是多方面转化过程的终点。O包括无法思考的“无名的恐惧”,“β元素”,“物自身”;也包括了“终极现实”、“尊重”和“敬畏”(Bion, 1965; Grotstein, 2011a, p. 506)。

As the Container-Contained is a part of Bion’s deductive scientific system, the theory of thought and thinking (Bion, 1962a, 1962b, 1963, 1965, 1970), it is important to place it in this context. According to this broad theory, “thoughts” and “thinking apparatus” have distinct origins, with “thoughts” existing independently of its thinking apparatus: “thoughts” are not generated by the thinking apparatus. In both, the Container-Contained relationship is seminal. Accordingly, Container-Contained relationship could be viewed as the embryo of mental life.

由于涵容者-被涵容者是拜昂的演绎科学体系、思想和思考理论的一部分 (Bion, 1962a, 1962b, 1963, 1965, 1970),因此,重要的是要将其置入情景之中。根据这个概念的广义理论,“思想(thoughts)”和“思考装置”有着不同的起源,“思想”独立于它的思维装置而存在。“思想”不是由思维装置产生的。在这两者之中,涵容者-被涵容者的关系是种子(seminal)。因此,可以将涵容者-被涵容者的关系视为心智生活的胚胎(embryo)。

According to this theory, the genesis of a “thought” is a process in which the Container-Contained relationship is the initial step. The condition for the psychic content (emotion, sensorial perception) to achieve mental quality (representation, thought) is the existence of the container capable of containing it. The prototypical object of this function (“Container”, with ♀ sign) is the mother’s breast, an innate preconception waiting to be realized.

根据这一理论,“思想”的起源是涵容者-被涵容者关系的最初一步,精神内容(表征、思想)获得心智品质(情绪、感官知觉)的条件是涵容其的涵容者存在的能力。这一功能的原型客体是母亲的乳房,一个与生俱来的前概念正等着去实现。

Sensorial and emotional stimuli (“contents”), conjugated with this adequate “container” transforms into a “Contained” (with ♂ sign), thus creating the “Container- Contained” relationship, an initial developmental moment of a thought by the thinker. This Container-Contained relationship (♀-♂) allows for the occurrence of an Emotional Experience, which will be characterized by the bond that qualifies it, L (love), H (hate), or K (knowledge, thought). Obtaining attention from Consciousness, this Emotional Experience can be transformed into alpha element, the monad of mental life, through the operation of the alpha function.

感官和情感刺激(“内容”),结合着这个胜任的“涵容者”(以 ♂符号)转化成“被涵容者”,从而创造了“涵容者-被涵容者”的关系,以及思想者思想的原初演化时刻。这个涵容者-被涵容者关系(♀-♂) 允许产生L(爱)、H(恨)和K(知识、思想)的结合为特点的情绪体验。为了从意识中获得关注,这种情感体验可以通过阿尔法功能的运作,转化为α元素,心智生活和单孢体。

The appearance of “thoughts” forces the creation of an apparatus to deal with them. Two foundational mechanisms conjugate for such, namely the Container-Contained (♀ ♂) and the dynamic relationship between the paranoid-schizoid and depressive position ((PS ↔ D)).

“思想”的出现迫使建立一个装置来处理它们。这两种机制的配合是这样的,即涵容者-被涵容者(♀-♂) 以及偏执分裂和抑郁位之间的动力关系 (PS ↔ D)。

(未完待续)


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标签: Bion BION bion 被涵容者 涵容 涵容者 容器

延伸阅读
  • 拜昂的容纳功能理论及其对精神病的理解
  • 对联结的攻击
  • 《思想等待思想者》導讀