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我们会根据对方的地位来调整音高

Lexie Thorpe/BPS 2017-8-05
陈明 译

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We adjust the pitch of our voice based on the status of who we’re talking to
我们会根据对方的地位来调整音高
来源 Lexie Thorpe/BPS
翻译:陈明
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*YG5Hy w&F0In most human societies those with a higher social status enjoy privileges beyond the reach of others. Such status can be obtained through dominance, using intimidation or force, or acquiring prestige by demonstrating knowledge and skill. To make best use of the benefits though, other people need to know that you are top dog.

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在人类社会中,大多数社会地位较高的人会享有其他人无法享有的特权。这种优势地位可以通过支配、恐吓或武力获得,也可以通过知识和技能的展示来获得威望。为了充分利用这些好处,你需要让其他人知道,你是最棒的。

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On the other hand, if you’re of a lower status, there are probably times when it pays to avoid challenging those higher up the pecking order. In which case, you might want to convey your recognition of their authority.心理学空间 PK]7d$P#mum

;wK*cXp;i V0另一方面,如果你的地位较低,可能会一再避免挑战那些地位更高的人。在这种情况下,对权威的认可,可能是您想要表达的。心理学空间:C1\C]lwsr

o;Q#zMC/p@-D0Using body language, such as by taking up more space (adopting “power poses”) may be one of the most obvious, visible modes of asserting ourselves. But of course speech also conveys status, not only in its content, but in the characteristics of the voice itself. Indeed, according to a new study in PLOS One we adjust the pitch of our voice depending on who we are talking to. The research group at the University of Stirling found that the direction of this unconscious vocal tuning depends on the speaker’s perception of their social status relative to the listener.

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GZQ!f sL*U(BDv0使用肢体语言,例如占据更多的空间(采用“力量姿势”),可能是维护我们自己主张最明显、最显著地方式之一。当然,在演讲中传递的优势地位,不仅体现在内容上,还体现在声音本身的特点上。事实上,根据公共科学图书馆的一项新研究,我们会根据谈话的对象的地位来调整声音的音高。斯特林大学的研究小组发现,这种无意识声音调整的方向取决于说话者对听者社会地位的感知。心理学空间{T8h^nJ

6G?0~i MNN0Juan David Leongómez and his colleagues recorded students as they took part in simulated interviews for a job as an admin assistant with three different male employers (the order of the interviews was varied between participants). A picture and description of each employer showed one to be highly dominant (Chief of Security at a prison, described as tough and intimidating), another highly prestigious (Head of Department at a Business School, described as well-respected and competent), and a third was neutral (from the HR department at a secondary school, described as your average boss).

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:C:hx#e:|0Juan David Leongómez和他的同事们记录了学生们在与三个不同的男性雇主在模拟的情景中面试行政助理职位时的情况(不同参与者的访谈顺序是不同的)。 在第一个场景中,雇主被描述为有着更高的统治地位(将监狱保安队长描述为厉害和有威胁的),另一个有较高的声望(将商学院的系主任描述为德高望重的),第三位是中性的(来自于中学人力资源部的人被描述为你平时的老板的样子)。心理学空间H6Q/_-Nm%y |

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The participants had to introduce themselves to the employer, and explain why they were suited to the job. They were also asked about how they would approach their boss if they had a disagreement with a colleague. After all the interviews, the participants filled out a questionnaire about their own and the employers’ dominance and prestige.心理学空间)A5?+Y,s,p^

1yh|D){+O)yJ0Z#v0参与者必须向雇主介绍自己,并解释他们为什么适合这份工作。还会问到他们,如果他们与同事意见不合,他们将如何对待他们的老板。在所有面试之后,参与者填写了一份关于他们自己、以及雇主的优势与声望的问卷。心理学空间T }w+^m|7r(G&|^9t6z

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From the recordings, the researchers calculated the “fundamental frequency” of the participants’ voices (an objective measure of pitch) and tracked variations in their voice pitch as they spoke. A low fundamental frequency would equate to sounding calm and in control, and has been found to be perceived as more dominant in both male and female voices, although the natural sex difference in absolute pitch was accounted for.心理学空间'uy td JJ#Vl-EN J

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研究人员从录音中计算出参与者的声音的基音频率(客观测量的音高),并跟踪他们说话时音调的变化。较低的基音频率意味着沉着冷静和控制,并且发现这在男性和女性的声音中都更具优势,尽管绝对音高的自然性别差异已经被考虑在内。心理学空间 V#EzCA$LYX`gr([

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When talking to the highly dominant and prestigious employers, both male and female students who also perceived themselves as more dominant lowered their voice pitch, whilst students who perceived themselves to be less dominant did the opposite. These changes in pitch were most noticeable when the students explained why they were the best candidate and talked about how they would resolve the conflict.心理学空间 O"ba(hhzz/_

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与统治地位和有声望的雇主交谈时,认为自己更具统治地位的男女学生降低了他们的嗓音,而那些认为自己不那么强势的学生则相反。当学生们解释他们为什么是最好的候选人并谈论他们将如何解决冲突时,这些音高上的变化最为明显。

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The new findings add to past research showing that lower voice pitch conveys traits related to social status, including physical strength and attractiveness.

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新的发现扩充了以往的研究,较低的音调传达了与社会地位相关的特征,例如体力吸引力

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6b[RSg(I*qs4hTe0It seemed that the students’ perception of their own status led them to use different vocal strategies in the interviews with the high-status employers. The students with higher self-perceived dominance may have felt more confident and in control of the situation, and thus more able to compete for the job. Conversely, for those who rated themselves less dominant, and may have felt more intimidated, appearing deferent to the employer may have been a beneficial strategy.

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I|j#P,?E0学生对自己地位的看法似乎导致了他们与高地位雇主面试时,会使用不同的发声策略。自我感知度更高的学生可能会感到更自信,更能控制局面,从而更有能力竞争这项工作。相反,对于那些认为自己不那么强势、可能感到更受威胁的人来说,显得与雇主不同也许是一种有益的策略。

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Y"?9X&D6fQ@-bD0However, the employers were actually computerised faces created to appear prestigious, dominant or neither, so it’s not clear how these findings would relate to a prestigious employer in real-life, or to a less formal social setting. Mock job interviews have been shown to increase anxiety, and recording the participants’ speech is likely to have increased their stress further, making voice alterations more or less pronounced than usual.心理学空间f6Z}/u9htp

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然而,实际上,经过电脑处理的程序化的雇主们,他们的面孔看起来很有声望、更有地位,或者两者都没有,所以不清楚这些调查结果如何与现实生活中有声望的雇主或不太正式的社会环境有关。模拟面试本来就会增加焦虑,而且,拍摄参与者讲话的行为可能会进一步增加受试者的压力,使声音的改变比平时更为明显或更不明显。

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The real-life implications of the effect are also not known, as the study did not address which group were more likely to be successful in the interview. Whilst being intimidated might not come across well, it’s probably not a good idea to compete with your boss either. CEOs with lower-pitched voices tend to manage larger companies and make more money, but then again, surgeons whose voices were perceived to be higher in dominance, and possibly arrogance, were more likely to have been sued for malpractice. Suffice then to say that, when asserting status, context – and subtlety – is key.心理学空间'Kc;DdHO

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这种影响的现实意义还不清楚,因为这项研究没有说明哪一组在面试中更有可能成功。虽然受到恐吓可能不太好,但和老板竞争也不是个好主意。较低音调的的CEO。倾向于管理更大的公司,赚更多的钱,但同样,医生的声音被认为有更高支配地位、可能更傲慢,就有更可能因渎职而被起诉。那么就可以说,在评估地位状态时,环境背景和细微的差别是关键。

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5j6e/cV]w0—Perceived differences in social status between speaker and listener affect the speaker’s vocal characteristics

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