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女性真的比男性表达了更多的情绪么?

Emma Young/BPS 2017-6-05
陈明编译

Do women really show their emotions more than men?
女性真的比男性表达了更多的情绪么?
By Emma Young/BPS
陈明编译

 

It’s a stereotype that has improved a little over the years but still persists: women are more emotionally expressive than men. Like Bridget Jones, we constantly reveal exactly how we’re feeling, while men, Mark Darcy-like, look on impassively.

虽然“女性比男性更富于情感表现力”这种刻板印象在过去几年里有所改善,但仍然存在。就像《BJ单身日记》一样,我们不断揭示我们呢的情感世界,而男性,就像Mark Darcy一样在看热闹。

Although prior evidence suggests that women really do smile more often, a new study, published in PLOS One, has considered a greater variety of facial expressions, and it finds that the gender pattern is more complex, with some emotions displayed more by men than women. Arguably, this work helps to reveal not only differences in the emotional signals men and women send to others, but also differences in the emotions that we feel.

虽然之前的证据表明【1】,女性经常微笑,但是,一项发表在PLoS One的新的研究【2】认为,尽管女性面部表情的种类繁多,但是研究同时发现,男性的性别模式更加复杂,男性比女性更能表现出更多的情感。可以说,这项工作不仅有助于揭示男性和女性将情感信号发送给其他人的差异,而且有助于揭示我们感受到的不同的情绪。

Daniel McDuff of Microsoft Research, Redmond, US and his team used a new automated facial coding technology to analyse the expressions of 2,106 people as they watched a series of 10 video adverts at home.

美国微软雷德蒙研究院的 McDuff 和他的团队使用了一种新的自动面部编码技术分析了2106人的表情,他们在家里观看了一系列的10个视频广告。

The participants were crowdsourced from France, Germany, China, the US and the UK. While they watched ads from their own countries on everything from confectionary to cars, their webcams streamed images of their faces to a remote server.

参与者来自于法国,德国,中国,美国和英国。当他们观看来自于他们各自国家涵盖了从糖果到汽车所有商品的广告时,摄像头拍摄了他们脸部的图像并传送到远程服务器。

The women smiled more than the men, replicating the earlier research. They also engaged in more “inner brow raises”, an expression taken to indicate fear or sadness. But the men frowned more. Frowns are usually taken to be a show of anger, though the researchers noted that in this study, they might have reflected greater concentration, or confusion. There were no gender differences in some other expressions, including downturned mouths.

女性比男性笑的更多,这项研究重复着早期的研究。她们“眉毛内侧扬起”也进行的更多,这种表情是恐惧或悲伤的表达。但男性更多的会皱眉。皱眉通常是表达愤怒,但研究人员指出,在这项研究中,他们很可能是精神集中或混乱的反映。在其他的一些情绪表达中,并没有性别差异,包括噘嘴。

There is an ongoing debate in psychology about the extent to which facial expressions, including smiles and frowns, actually reflect and match felt emotions. When you smile, is it always because you’re feeling happy? Or do you sometimes smile when you’re anxious? And just because you’re frowning, does it necessarily mean you’re mad – or you just want someone else to think you are?

心理学正在进行包括微笑、皱眉在内的面部表情在何种程度上反映了情绪程度的辩论。当你微笑的时候,一定是因为你感到快乐吗?或者,在你焦虑的时候,你也会微笑吗?而且,只是因为你皱了一下眉毛,这是否意味着你生气了——或者,你只是想让别人认为你生气了?

But given work suggesting there is a close association between emotions and facial expressions, an implication of the new results is that women are more prone to feeling happy and also more anxious (or at least more inclined to show these emotions), and that men are more likely to feel angry (or more confused…), which raises the question of why might this be?

但是,鉴于已有的研究表明,在面部表情和情绪之间,有着密切联系,新的研究结果的一个含义是,女性更容易感到快乐,也更加焦虑(或者,至少是她们倾向于表现出这些情绪),而男性更容易感到愤怒(或者是更多的困惑……),这引起了为什么会是这样的问题?

McDuff and his team suggested that at least part of the explanation could be down to the different social expectations and pressures placed on the genders. For example, there’s evidence that in many countries, happiness is seen as more desirable for girls than boys.

McDuff和他的团队认为,不同的社会期望和性别压力至少可能部分的解释这一现象。例如,有证据表明,在许多国家【3】,幸福被更适合描述女孩,而不是男孩。

Such an account would help explain why the size of the observed gender differences varied around the world, being the smallest in the UK, consistent with the idea that gender-related social expectations are less marked in some countries than others.

这样的说明将有助于解释:为什么在世界各地观察到的性别差异大小的变化在英国是最小的,这些与以下的观点一致:和其他国家相比,一些国家与性别相关的社会期望不太显著。

There were a few other geographical differences: women in the US were the smiliest, while women in the UK and Germany frowned least. But the general data patterns in each of the five countries were the same.

这里还存在着一些其他的地理差异:美国的妇女笑的更少,而在英国和德国妇女皱眉最少。但是,普通的数据模式在五个各自的国家中是一样的。

One limitation with the study was the fact that volunteers knew they were being videoed, which might have influenced their reactions. But a major advantage was the use of rapid automated coding technology. This allowed for many more participants than would normally be practical in research on facial expressions, which are usually decoded by a researcher. Crowdsourcing volunteers and using computer-based decoding, as in this case, could open the way for many more mass-studies of emotion and behaviour.

这个研究的一个局限是,事实上,志愿者知道他们正在参与拍摄,这可能会影响他们的反应。但这个研究的主要优点是使用了快速自动化编码技术。这与通常是由研究员解码的实际的面部表情的研究相比,接纳了更多的参与者。众包志愿者和使用基于计算机的解码,在这种情况下,可以打开更多的情感和行为的大规模研究的方式。

http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.305

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173942

【3】http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022022104268387

新一篇:短暂的正念训练无益于共情培养,甚至可以让自恋者恶化
旧一篇:没有人知道如何补救人们的无知


标签: 情绪 社会期望 性别差异

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