心理学空间
繁体 心理学人 > 陈明 常熟心理咨询师 > 科普 >

BPS精选:聪明的人更快乐么?

Christian Jarrett 文 2017-3-07
陈明 译

Smarter people are happier, says new analysis involving 80,000 participants, but only a bit
聪明的人更快乐,新的分析包含了80000名参与者,但只有一点点
Christian Jarrett 文
陈明 译


“happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know” ——Ernest Hemingway
“聪明人的快乐,是我所知的最珍贵的东西”——爱因斯坦

A lot of us would like to be smarter and happier, but does one lead to the other? Folk wisdom suggests not: old sayings tell us that “ignorance is bliss” and that “only a fool can be happy”. What does the psychology literature say? A new meta-analysis in the Journal of Vocational Behaviour has combined the results from dozens of previous studies involving many tens of thousands of participants and, contrary to the received wisdom, it concludes that higher intelligence actually does correlate with greater happiness (or “life satisfaction”) and job satisfaction, but only weakly.

我们中的很多人都想变得更聪明更快乐,但是,更快乐是否是来自于更聪明呢?民间的智慧并不这么认为:老话说“无知是福”,“只有傻瓜才会幸福”。那么,心理学文献会怎么说呢?在《职业行为杂志》上新发表的一项元分析结合了数十个过去的研究,这些研究包含了成千上万个被试,而且,与被普遍认可的智慧相反,其结论是,更高的智力的确与更多的幸福(或“生活满意度”)和工作满意度相关,但,这个相关性有些弱。

Erik Gonzalez-Mulé at Indiana University and his colleagues sifted the literature, identifying relevant papers, published and unpublished, going back to 1980. Combining the results from 33 papers involving nearly 50,000 participants, they found that intelligence (or what they called “general mental ability”) had a weak but statistically non-significant positive correlation with life satisfaction, and a modest, statistically significant positive correlation with job satisfaction.

印第安那大学的Erik Gonzalez-Mulé和他的同事详细筛选并辨识了从1980开始发表的和未发表的文献与论文。综合了涉及近50000人参与的33篇论文的结果,他们发现,智力(或他们所谓的“一般智力能力”) 与生活满意度呈弱相关,但与生活满意度没有显著的正相关,与工作满意度呈现统计学上的中度显著正相关。

They found further evidence for the apparent benefits of higher intelligence for life satisfaction by factoring in the influence of “job complexity” (greater complexity meaning a job with more variety, skill demands and autonomy) and job income, two factors that are themselves correlated with greater happiness. This showed that higher intelligence has indirect links with greater happiness because more intelligent people tend to earn more, but especially because they tend to have more complex jobs, which presumably are more rewarding.

他们将因素分解到智力对“工作满意度”的影响,以及智力对“工资收入”的影响,这两项因素本身是与更大的幸福相关的,进而进一步发现了更高智力对于更高的生活满意度有显而易见好处的证据。这表明,更高的智力间接的相关于更大的幸福,因为更聪明的人往往赚的钱更多,但是,这尤其是因为他们往往有更复杂的工作,这大概会有更多的回报。

According to 38 studies involving nearly 30,000 participants, higher intelligence also had indirect links with job satisfaction by virtue of the fact that it correlated with job complexity and income. But this is psychology, so of course there’s a twist that somewhat supports the folk wisdom about intelligent people rarely being happy. When the researchers held job complexity and income constant in their analysis, they found that higher intelligence actually correlated with less job satisfaction. Put differently, if you imagine a range of people at a given level of job complexity and income, those with higher intelligence will tend to be less happy with their jobs. This makes intuitive sense if you consider that smarter people will be more likely than others to experience boredom and frustration at jobs that are not challenging enough.

根据涉及近30000名参与者的38项研究,较高的智力也间接的相关于工作满意度,这一事实来自于其工作复杂程度与其收入相关。但这是心理学,所以,这里当然有一个支持“聪明的人很少快乐”的民间智慧交集。当研究人员在分析中恒定了工作复杂性和收入这两个变量后,他们发现,高智商与工作满意度并不相关。不同的是,如果你想象一个人有着特定工作复杂程度和一定的收入水平,那些智力更高的人往往会对自己的工作不太满意。如果你认为聪明的人比其他人更可能在没有挑战性的工作中体验到无聊和沮丧, 这个直觉就有些道理了。

The great strength of meta-analyses like this one is in the huge amounts of data that they can draw on. But the new study also has some obvious limitations: some of the data is decades-old and may not be relevant to today’s world. Also, this is cross-sectional data which can’t convincingly address whether intelligence is causing changes in life and job satisfaction, nor how such processes may unfold over time.

如此的元分析的优势是,他们可以借鉴海量数据,但这项新的研究也有一些明显的局限性:一些数据已经过去几十年了,可能与今天的世界不相关。而且,这是横截面的数据,对于解决智力是否改变了生活和工作满意度而言,是不能令人信服的,也不知道这样的过程是否可能会随着时间的推移而改变。

——————

—Are smarter people happier? Meta-analyses of the relationships between general mental ability and job and life satisfaction


新一篇:BPS精选 真诚感来自于成为最好的自己,而不是真实的你
旧一篇:BPS精选:喜悦归于相拥


标签: 智力

延伸阅读
  • 一种新的智力观———塞西的智力生物生态学模型述评
  • 奥托·克恩伯格:人格是什么?
  • 聪明的人比较容易成功吗?来看看「临界点理论」
  • “操纵”基因能否打造“超级智商”
  • 寻找智力基因
  • 什么决定了你的智力
  • 瑟斯顿的群因素论简介
  • The Nature of Intelligence智力的本质
  • 智力和社会性哪个更重要