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BPS精选:被欺凌的受害者只能靠自己

Alex Fradera 文 2017-2-26
陈明 译文

Resist or avoid? Sad study suggests bullying victims are on their own either way
抵抗还是逃避?令人悲哀研究表明被欺凌的受害者无论采取哪种方式他们只能靠自己
Alex Fradera
陈明 译文


题图:办公室人员在背后说人闲话

Workplace bullying can corrode organisations and wreck individual lives. Research has revealed more and more about effects on victims and the motives of the perpetrators. But bullying is often a performance that demands an audience: you can’t ostracise someone from an empty room, or gossip about them to the wind. So it’s worth looking at the third ingredient in the bullying mix: the bystander. New research in the Journal of Social Psychology takes on this task, looking at the factors that dispose a bystander against bullying victims, and what might encourage them to step in and help.

工作场所的欺凌会侵蚀组织结构并毁坏个人生活。研究揭示了越来越多的对受害者的影响以及肇事者的动机。但欺凌通常是一个要求观众参与的演出:你不能从一间空房中排斥某人,或对着空气说长道短。所以值得看一看在欺凌组合中的第三个要素:旁观者。在《社会心理学杂志》上的新研究承担了这项任务,这项研究着眼于处理针对欺凌受害者的旁观者,以及什么可能会鼓励他们介入其中并施于帮助。

Researchers from the Netherlands-based Open University recruited 161 working adults and presented each with a hypothetical workplace vignette, in which the victim was interrupted, belittled, excluded and gossiped about by a bullying colleague. In one condition, the victim was proactive, daring the bully to criticise them to their face or demanding they cease their behaviour. In another, the victim avoided the situation, by skipping out when the bully entered a room, or by taking sick leave to avoid work entirely.

来自荷兰的研究人员招募了161名有工的成年人,并且向每个人呈现了一个假设的工作情景,在这个情景之中,受害者被欺凌同事干扰、轻视、排和八卦。在一个场景中,受害者是积极大胆的当面斥责他们并要求他们停止他们的行为。在另一个情景中,受害者回避了这个情景,当恶霸进入一个房间时受害者溜之大吉,或以病假来完完全全地避免工作。

The participants were cast as bystanders to these contrasting situations, and Roelie Mulder’s team predicted that they would have a more negative view of the avoidant victims. Stigma research shows that people are less sympathetic to the suffering of others when they perceive they haven’t taken opportunities to improve their situation. Consistent with this, participants said they would feel more anger towards an avoidant victim, and considered them to hold much more responsibility for their predicament. Proactive victims were additionally seen as more self-reliant. So it might appear that proactivity is a good move if you want to get bystanders on-side and willing to help you out.

参与者在这些不同的情景中扮演旁观者,Roelie Mulder的团队预测他们会对回避的幸存者有更多负面的观点。耻感研究表明,当人们意识到自己没有机会改善自己的处境时,他们对他人的痛苦的共情就会很少。与耻感研究相一致的是,参与者说,对于回避的受害者,他们会感到更多的愤怒,并认为他们对他们的困境承担了更多的责任。积极主动的受害者被看作是更独立的。因此,如果你与旁观者达成共识并希望帮助你拜托困境的话,主动性可能显得是一个很好的行动。

Sadly, that’s not the case. Participants were also asked to report how likely they would be to step in and help the victim, and they showed no greater willingness to help proactive ones. There’s a grim logic behind this: the more responsible a victim was seen to be for being bullied, the less participants wanted to help. But bystanders were also less likely to help victims they saw as self-reliant, presumably because they felt less of a pressing need to do so. You either don’t need help, or you don’t deserve it, a classic catch-22.

可悲的是,情况并非如此。参与者也被要求报告他们将如何介入并帮助受害者,同时,他们没有表现出更大的意愿去帮助积极的人。这背后有一个残酷的逻辑:参与者认为是受到欺凌的受害者担负的责任越大,他们者就越少的想要帮助他。但旁观者也不太可能帮助他们看到的自力更生的受害者,大概是因为他们认为他们觉得不是那么迫切需要这样做。你或者不需要帮助,或者你不配接受帮助,一个典型的第22条军规式的两难困境。

Proactivity appears admirable from the outside: in past work, most people said they would prefer to stand up to hypothetical bullies, and victims looking back on events often wish they had done so. But the reality is that when we find ourselves in these situations, it isn’t so easy – avoidance is the more common strategy – and what’s more, proactivity isn’t always the wisest choice. If you lose your cool, you could be at risk of formal consequences. And even if you play it well, a confronted bully might just double down on their behaviour. A proactive victim might be the one most in need of help, but bystanders don’t see it that way. So if you’re coming out fighting, bear in mind that you may also need to explicitly ask for help from those who seem sympathetic, but haven’t realised the need to throw their hat into the ring.

从外部来看,主动性显得令人钦佩:在过去的工作中,大多数人表示他们愿意站起来面对假想的恶霸,受害者回顾事件时常常希望他们这样做。但现实是,当我们发现自己在这些情况下,这不是那么容易的事情—回避是更常见的策略—更重要的是,主动性并不总是最明智的选择。如果你失去理智,你可能会面临正式的后果。即使你表现得很好,面质恶霸也可能会加倍降低他们的行为。一个积极的受害者可能是一个最需要帮助的人,但旁观者不这样看。所以,如果你要出来战斗,请记住,你可能还需要明确的寻求帮助,向那些同情你的、但还没有意识到要撸起袖子的人寻求帮助。

原文:Workplace mobbing: How the victim’s coping behavior influences bystander responses


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标签: 旁观者 欺凌

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