A Two-Year-Old Goes to Hospital两岁小孩去医院
A Film Shown By JOHN BOWLBY, M.D., and JAMES ROBERTSON
[November 28, 1952]
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine Vol. 46 Section of Paediatrics
Dr. John Bowlby:The theme of this film is a very commonplace one-simply the story of a child of 2 years who spends eight days in hospital for a minor operation and who frets a good deal of this time. It may be asked why bother to make and show a film of something so commonplace?
Dr. John Bowlby：这部电影的主题是一个很平常的简单故事，两岁的小孩一个在医院接受小手术，在这8天的大多数时间里都烦躁不安。人们可能要问，为什么拍摄并展示一部如此普通的电影？
The reason is that we believe that fretting should no longer be looked upon as an unavoidable inconvenience but as something of serious importance and worthy of scientific study. There is now evidence that prolonged periods of maternal deprivation in very young children can, in some cases, give rise to extremely serious psychiatric disturbances. There has been a succession of papers and monographs on this subject during the last fifteen years and two years ago WHO published a review of this evidence (Bowlby, 1951). Furthermore, it is becoming fairly well known that the majority of children under 4 years old who have spent only a brief period in hospital, or otherwise away from their mothers, show emotional upsets of shorter or longer duration.
原因是，我们认为，仍旧将烦躁不安视为是一个不可避免的麻烦，这是不应该，而应将其视为一件严肃的事情，值得科学的研究。现在有证据表明，在某些情况下，长期剥夺非常年幼孩子的 母爱，会引起非常严重的精神障碍。关于这个问题，在过去的十五年间，以及两年前WHO出版的关于这一证据的回顾之中，已经有了一系列的论文和专著。此外，众所周知，大多数4岁以下的儿童在医院度过一个短暂的时光、或以其他的方式远离他们母亲， 会或长或短的表现出情绪的不安。
Since the existence of the problem is no longer in doubt, the Research Team investigating it at the Tavistock Clinic is concentrating its attention on the psychological processes which lead to these adverse effects. We are giving special attention to the emotional responses of very young children during the first days and weeks following separation from their mothers. After a number of semisystematic studies we decided eighteen months ago to attempt as full a coverage as possible of one child throughout her stay in hospital. It was during this pilot study that this film was made.
It is because we believe it permits of an objective examination of what actually happens when a young child has this experience that we think it may be of value in furthering our understanding of fretting and the emotional disturbances to which it can lead. We believe that it is only on the basis of this knowledge that improved methods of care can be developed.
BOWLBY, E. J. M. (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health. WHO Mono. Ser. No. 2. Geneva.
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Mr. James Robertson:There are special difficulties in the way of getting objective data on the meaning of separation to children under 4. They can tell little in words, so that understanding has to be sought largely through interpreting their behaviour. As fieldworker I discovered that there were often limits to the agreement to be had in discussion with nurses and paediatricians not only about the meaning of behaviour in certain young patients but also about the actual facts of that behaviour.