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核炸后的生活:探究广岛的地理心理学

Becky Alexis-Martin 2017-9-04
陈明 翻译
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Life after the bomb: exploring the psychogeography of Hiroshima
爆炸后的生活:探究广岛地理心理学
Becky Alexis-Martin 卫报
陈明 翻译
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Hiroshima is flourishing. It has a population surpassing 1.19 million, a burgeoning gourmet scene, towering luxury shopping centres, and a trendy night life. It is a city of vibrant green boulevards and open spaces, entangled by the braided tributaries of the ōta River. However it is also a city of memorialisation. Over 75 monuments, large and small, sprout like delicate mushrooms in parks and on sidewalks, scattered across the city as if by the wind. Whilst the city grows and evolves, the memory remains of Hiroshima as first place on Earth where nuclear weapons were used in warfare, on 6 August 1945.心理学空间 U;?;o$G9~Xt*g

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2g!R[.\3d4TU0如今的广岛是繁华的。人口超过119万,一个新兴的美食广场,高耸豪华的购物中心,以及时尚的夜生活。这个充满活力的开放城市有着绿色的林荫大道,被纵横交织的太田川河环绕。然而,它也是一个有着历史纪念意义的城市。在公园和人行道上,超过75个大大小小的纪念碑像雨后春笋般在城市中萌芽,就像风一样散落在整个城市。随着城市的发展和演变,广岛的记忆仍然是地球上的第一个在战争中被投掷了核武器的地方,那是1945年8月6日。

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The number of fatalities is not known, due wartime population transience and the destruction of records in the blast. Estimates are in the region of 135,000 people, roughly equivalent to the population of Oxford. It is therefore unsurprising that many locals have Hibakusha veterans in their families. The Hibakusha community maintain a living collective memory of the bomb, sharing their atomic folktales similarly to the Kataribe storytellers, as a cautionary modern mythology against nuclear war.

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由于爆炸毁灭了战时人口流动和记录,死亡人数尚不清楚。估计当时该地区的人口为135000人,大致相当于牛津人口。因此,许多当地人的家中仍然有核爆幸存是不足为奇的。广岛社区保留了活生生的爆炸集体记忆,他们就像是叙述故事的评书人,分享着他们自己的核爆故事,并且通过这种警示性的现代神话来反对核战争。心理学空间5^9sqk4P

It was assumed that nothing would grow within the bleak blast-zone for 75 years. Photograph: Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum/AFP/Getty Images
0o8Vo9c9TqeG0曾经推测,在这片荒凉的爆炸地带,75年内寸草不生。图片来源:广岛和平纪念馆/法新社/盖蒂图片社心理学空间@-v/l,g}Waq3IT

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It was assumed that nothing would grow within the bleak 1.6km blast-zone for 75 years. However, surrounding prefectures donated trees to Hiroshima. Fresh stems quickly pushed through the damaged earth, plants took root, and the branches of the Hibaku-jumoku, the survivor trees, unfurled leaves of weeping willow and oleander from budded stalks. The city has been rehabilitated, and it is challenging to imagine it as a place of devastation. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park is a lush focal point of this re-greening process, and a unique human ecosystem has sprung up among the gingko trees and sussurating cicadas.

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曾经推测,在爆炸的核心区域1.6公里范围内,75年间都会寸草不生。然而,周边的县向广岛捐赠了树木。鲜活的茎叶迅速在毁坏的地球表面蔓延,植物扎根,核爆幸存下来的树木hibaku jumoku的枝干在迎风招展的垂柳和夹竹桃中间抽出了新芽。将这座已被修复的城市想象成为一个毁灭荒废的地方是需要挑战想象力的。郁郁葱葱的广岛和平纪念公园是重建绿化过程中的一个的焦点,也是在如雨后春笋般涌现的银杏树和蝉鸣之间的一个独特人文生态系统。心理学空间F n(F V~ }.|Z

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The park has its own distinctive psychogeography, providing a public space for complex emotions and experiences to be explored by locals and tourists. International visitors feature prominently around the larger memorials and cenotaph. They ring the delicate origami crane bell-pull within the Children’s Peace Monument, take a few photographs of the cenotaph, stroll beside the Peace Pond, and then across the river to the A-bomb dome.

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公园里有自己独特的地理心理学,为当地人和游客探索复杂的情绪与体验提供了一个公共空间。国际游客的面容特征在纪念馆和纪念碑周围显得很突出。他们将精致的纸鹤围绕在儿童和平纪念碑周围,拍了几张纪念碑的照片,漫步在和平池塘边,然后穿过河流来到原爆圆顶。心理学空间| U9B+veK'ss6a

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Tattered peace cranes adorn a memorial. Photograph: B. Alexis-Martin
破烂和平鹤装饰着纪念碑。摄影:B. Alexis Martin
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/\;i`/dg9K$n0Distance is no indication of personal connection, and victims of Hiroshima have originated from across the USA, China and South East Asia. Thousands of Koreans died in Hiroshima: the men were forcibly conscripted and the women performed the duties of “comfort women”. The monument and Cenotaph to Korean Victims are festooned with brightly coloured flowers and receive a constant trickle of visitors, many of whom are Korean. Swags of peace cranes garland the smaller memorials dotted about the park, and the fragrance of sandalwood and citron lingers, as incense is lit and local heads are respectfully bowed. Japanese schoolchildren come here to learn, and they sit in the shade of the trees at noon in civilised huddles, to eat lunch and chatter.

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;f(fkkdJm;P q2gI \0距离并不象征着人与人的联系,广岛的受害者来自于美国、中国和东南亚。成千上万的韩国人死在广岛:男性被强征为苦役,女性被强征为“慰安妇”。韩国遇难者纪念碑都装饰着色彩鲜艳的花,由之流不息的游客带来,他们当中,许多都是韩国人。破烂的和平鹤环绕着公园的小纪念碑,当焚香之时,檀香和柚子香气萦绕其中,地方领导都恭恭敬敬地鞠了一躬。日本的学生来这里学习,他们井然有序的一起坐在正午的树荫下吃饭聊天。心理学空间?q"qB\f8s

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One of the park’s shrines. Photograph: B. Alexis-Martin
公园的圣地之一。摄影:B. Alexis Martin

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Many visit to reflect upon the atrocity of the bombing, but this attitude is not universal. I learned this during an encounter with an American man at the Ground Zero memorial, tucked away on a side-street beyond the boundaries of the park. We smiled at each other, as he shared his reasons for visiting, declared the power of the bomb to end the war, and the American soldiers, including his grandfather, whose lives were saved by this action. He was grateful for the bomb, but I was shocked at the way he had decided to make an emotional connection with this place.

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Ah qw!m-g0许多访客反思了轰炸的残暴,但是这种态度并不普遍。在爆炸核心纪念馆遇到一个美国男人之后,我意识到了这些。我们在公园边界外的一条小路上互相微笑,他分享了他来这里的理由,宣称了炸弹在结束战争中所发挥的力量,包括他的祖父在内的美国士兵,他们的生命被这次行动拯救了。他很感激炸弹,但是,对于他将自己的情绪与这个地方相关联的决定,我感到震惊。

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However, the local community has a deep and profound connection to the park. Volunteers in distinctive uniforms meticulously maintain the place on a daily basis. This voluntary care of space escalates, as Hiroshima Peace Day draws near. Visit the park at 6am towards the end of July, and you will discover hordes of elderly people from the “Senior University”, wearing sunhats and brandishing trowels. They crouch above the ground, plucking weeds from the soil with gloved fingers. Whilst they garden, trails of elegantly dressed office workers bisect the park at intervals, carrying files and parasols in delicately gloved hands. Commuting to work, this stretch of land has become another familiar part of the rhythm of their daily lives.

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然而,当地社区和公园之间有着深厚的联系。穿着显眼制服的志愿者们,每天都一丝不苟地维护着这个地方。随着广岛和平日的临近,志愿者照顾的空间逐步扩大。在七月底的早上6点开始,你会发现从“老年大学”来的成群的老年人戴着帽子,挥舞着小铲子。他们蹲在地上,用戴手套的手指拔草。当穿着高雅的办公人员在公园小径走过时,戴着精致的手套、手里拿着文件和阳伞。在上下班的路上,这片土地已成为另一个熟悉的部分,是他们日常生活的节奏。

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H.^V p;_0xrfoj!aP0There are also spaces of conflict and deviance here. The Uyoku dantai are the Japanese extreme-far right. They call themselves the Society of Patriots and travel about in dark vans painted with worrying slogans. War crime denialists, they support historical revisionism, oppose socialism and want Japan to join the nuclear circus. Unfortunately, they cannot be arrested due to the protection of freedom of ideology by the Constitution of Japan. So they jeer from the sidelines of the park, and organise protests outside the A-Dome on Hiroshima Peace Day. To the consternation of many, they have been gaining popularity in recent years.

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这里也有冲突和异常的空间。他们是日本右翼团体的极右翼势力。他们自称是爱国者协会,横行的黑色小客车画着令人担忧的口号。否认战争罪行,他们支持历史修正主义,反对社会主义,希望日本加入核俱乐部。不幸的是,由于日本宪法保护思想自由,不能逮捕他们。因此他们在公园的外围起哄,在广岛和平日,他们在原爆点的外围组织抗议。使许多人感到惊愕的是,近些年来,他们越来越受到欢迎。心理学空间2CnwT"[H3s

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Elderly men play board games such as Shogi and Go. Photograph: B. Alexis-Martin
老年人玩棋盘游戏,例如汉和将棋。摄影:B. Alexis Martin

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4pB fS,twD0However, there is also a place of joy hidden within this park, on a dusty corner of dry earth behind the public toilets. Here, a group of elderly Japanese men meet every week-day morning, to crouch on battered wooden chairs and play board games. Some, but not all, are Hibakusha, but all of them look relaxed, and laugh loudly as they engage in drawn-out battles of Shogi and Go. They have created their own friendly-yet-private space within this park. As dusk sets in, they pack up their board games and fold up their little chairs and tables to go home. The cicadas grow louder, and a calmness settles over the park as twilight descends. Small clusters of local teenagers gather and relax in the evening’s warmth. Faint sounds of conversation gradually dwindle to nothingness and the day draws to a close, reclaimed by the stillness of night. Our day in the park may be over, but the collective memory of the Hiroshima bombing forever remains.心理学空间.vY8i6cO-y;V

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然而,在这个公园里,也有一处欢乐的地方,在公共厕所后面干燥地面上尘土飞扬的角落。一群日本老人每周早上在这里开会,蹲在破旧的木椅上玩棋盘游戏。他们中有一些是核爆幸存者,但不是所有的都是,他们看起来很轻松,在他们参与的汉和将棋的战斗中发出了大笑声。他们在这个公园里创造了他们自己的空间,友好而又私密。夜幕降临,他们收起他们的棋盘、小椅子和桌子回家去了。蝉鸣声越来越大,直到暮色降临,公园里恢复了宁静。一群当地的青少年在黄昏温暖余辉中聚集在一起休息。微弱的谈话声逐渐消散,一天接近尾声,寂静的夜收回了一天的喧嚣。我们在公园的那一天也许已经结束了,但广岛核炸事件的集体记忆永存。

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$m a9S3pf_F ]0With gratitude to Professor Bo Jacobs at Hiroshima Peace Institute, and with love to the extraordinary Hibakusha of Hiroshima and their families worldwide.

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1l&]!{.SNH$W+b W0Becky Alexis-Martin is a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Southampton, with expertise in the cultural and social effects of nuclear defence. She writes on the lives of nuclear test veteran families, and the cultural and social significance of nuclear places and spaces.心理学空间 B;?.cZ[NhW.?,U

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Becky Alexis Martin是南安普敦大学的高级研究员,具有核防御的文化和社会影响方面的专门知识。她写的是核试验老兵家庭的生活,以及核场所和空间的文化和社会意义。

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