作者: Becky Alexis-Martin / 1055次阅读 时间: 2017年9月04日
来源: 陈明 翻译 标签: 地理心理学 广岛

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Life after the bomb: exploring the psychogeography of Hiroshima
Becky Alexis-Martin 卫报
陈明 翻译

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Hiroshima is flourishing. It has a population surpassing 1.19 million, a burgeoning gourmet scene, towering luxury shopping centres, and a trendy night life. It is a city of vibrant green boulevards and open spaces, entangled by the braided tributaries of the ōta River. However it is also a city of memorialisation. Over 75 monuments, large and small, sprout like delicate mushrooms in parks and on sidewalks, scattered across the city as if by the wind. Whilst the city grows and evolves, the memory remains of Hiroshima as first place on Earth where nuclear weapons were used in warfare, on 6 August 1945.

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The number of fatalities is not known, due wartime population transience and the destruction of records in the blast. Estimates are in the region of 135,000 people, roughly equivalent to the population of Oxford. It is therefore unsurprising that many locals have Hibakusha veterans in their families. The Hibakusha community maintain a living collective memory of the bomb, sharing their atomic folktales similarly to the Kataribe storytellers, as a cautionary modern mythology against nuclear war.

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It was assumed that nothing would grow within the bleak blast-zone for 75 years. Photograph: Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum/AFP/Getty Images心理学空间1nG_n3Wm


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^#IA{,l0It was assumed that nothing would grow within the bleak 1.6km blast-zone for 75 years. However, surrounding prefectures donated trees to Hiroshima. Fresh stems quickly pushed through the damaged earth, plants took root, and the branches of the Hibaku-jumoku, the survivor trees, unfurled leaves of weeping willow and oleander from budded stalks. The city has been rehabilitated, and it is challenging to imagine it as a place of devastation. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park is a lush focal point of this re-greening process, and a unique human ecosystem has sprung up among the gingko trees and sussurating cicadas.


5d }!j8O7k I.GHK0曾经推测,在爆炸的核心区域1.6公里范围内,75年间都会寸草不生。然而,周边的县向广岛捐赠了树木。鲜活的茎叶迅速在毁坏的地球表面蔓延,植物扎根,核爆幸存下来的树木hibaku jumoku的枝干在迎风招展的垂柳和夹竹桃中间抽出了新芽。将这座已被修复的城市想象成为一个毁灭荒废的地方是需要挑战想象力的。郁郁葱葱的广岛和平纪念公园是重建绿化过程中的一个的焦点,也是在如雨后春笋般涌现的银杏树和蝉鸣之间的一个独特人文生态系统。

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2TbzBl \*Z0The park has its own distinctive psychogeography, providing a public space for complex emotions and experiences to be explored by locals and tourists. International visitors feature prominently around the larger memorials and cenotaph. They ring the delicate origami crane bell-pull within the Children’s Peace Monument, take a few photographs of the cenotaph, stroll beside the Peace Pond, and then across the river to the A-bomb dome.心理学空间3Q"~k!S i*Yv

j;s[)E p;qjeI0公园里有自己独特的地理心理学,为当地人和游客探索复杂的情绪与体验提供了一个公共空间。国际游客的面容特征在纪念馆和纪念碑周围显得很突出。他们将精致的纸鹤围绕在儿童和平纪念碑周围,拍了几张纪念碑的照片,漫步在和平池塘边,然后穿过河流来到原爆圆顶。心理学空间2~(d@3S8p-Vs

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Tattered peace cranes adorn a memorial. Photograph: B. Alexis-Martin
破烂和平鹤装饰着纪念碑。摄影:B. Alexis Martin
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Distance is no indication of personal connection, and victims of Hiroshima have originated from across the USA, China and South East Asia. Thousands of Koreans died in Hiroshima: the men were forcibly conscripted and the women performed the duties of “comfort women”. The monument and Cenotaph to Korean Victims are festooned with brightly coloured flowers and receive a constant trickle of visitors, many of whom are Korean. Swags of peace cranes garland the smaller memorials dotted about the park, and the fragrance of sandalwood and citron lingers, as incense is lit and local heads are respectfully bowed. Japanese schoolchildren come here to learn, and they sit in the shade of the trees at noon in civilised huddles, to eat lunch and chatter.

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距离并不象征着人与人的联系,广岛的受害者来自于美国、中国和东南亚。成千上万的韩国人死在广岛:男性被强征为苦役,女性被强征为“慰安妇”。韩国遇难者纪念碑都装饰着色彩鲜艳的花,由之流不息的游客带来,他们当中,许多都是韩国人。破烂的和平鹤环绕着公园的小纪念碑,当焚香之时,檀香和柚子香气萦绕其中,地方领导都恭恭敬敬地鞠了一躬。日本的学生来这里学习,他们井然有序的一起坐在正午的树荫下吃饭聊天。心理学空间6wg kc{7m


One of the park’s shrines. Photograph: B. Alexis-Martin
公园的圣地之一。摄影:B. Alexis Martin
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Many visit to reflect upon the atrocity of the bombing, but this attitude is not universal. I learned this during an encounter with an American man at the Ground Zero memorial, tucked away on a side-street beyond the boundaries of the park. We smiled at each other, as he shared his reasons for visiting, declared the power of the bomb to end the war, and the American soldiers, including his grandfather, whose lives were saved by this action. He was grateful for the bomb, but I was shocked at the way he had decided to make an emotional connection with this place.


许多访客反思了轰炸的残暴,但是这种态度并不普遍。在爆炸核心纪念馆遇到一个美国男人之后,我意识到了这些。我们在公园边界外的一条小路上互相微笑,他分享了他来这里的理由,宣称了炸弹在结束战争中所发挥的力量,包括他的祖父在内的美国士兵,他们的生命被这次行动拯救了。他很感激炸弹,但是,对于他将自己的情绪与这个地方相关联的决定,我感到震惊。心理学空间!SE \ U:qb

$|t-]db0AVB0However, the local community has a deep and profound connection to the park. Volunteers in distinctive uniforms meticulously maintain the place on a daily basis. This voluntary care of space escalates, as Hiroshima Peace Day draws near. Visit the park at 6am towards the end of July, and you will discover hordes of elderly people from the “Senior University”, wearing sunhats and brandishing trowels. They crouch above the ground, plucking weeds from the soil with gloved fingers. Whilst they garden, trails of elegantly dressed office workers bisect the park at intervals, carrying files and parasols in delicately gloved hands. Commuting to work, this stretch of land has become another familiar part of the rhythm of their daily lives.心理学空间;A8O@ F/we

pstr7R b^0然而,当地社区和公园之间有着深厚的联系。穿着显眼制服的志愿者们,每天都一丝不苟地维护着这个地方。随着广岛和平日的临近,志愿者照顾的空间逐步扩大。在七月底的早上6点开始,你会发现从“老年大学”来的成群的老年人戴着帽子,挥舞着小铲子。他们蹲在地上,用戴手套的手指拔草。当穿着高雅的办公人员在公园小径走过时,戴着精致的手套、手里拿着文件和阳伞。在上下班的路上,这片土地已成为另一个熟悉的部分,是他们日常生活的节奏。心理学空间t$~$_i ]xTX{

9brB*R-v)e!W];B0There are also spaces of conflict and deviance here. The Uyoku dantai are the Japanese extreme-far right. They call themselves the Society of Patriots and travel about in dark vans painted with worrying slogans. War crime denialists, they support historical revisionism, oppose socialism and want Japan to join the nuclear circus. Unfortunately, they cannot be arrested due to the protection of freedom of ideology by the Constitution of Japan. So they jeer from the sidelines of the park, and organise protests outside the A-Dome on Hiroshima Peace Day. To the consternation of many, they have been gaining popularity in recent years.心理学空间RO$k"Q;M|b3h




Elderly men play board games such as Shogi and Go. Photograph: B. Alexis-Martin
老年人玩棋盘游戏,例如汉和将棋。摄影:B. Alexis Martin


cr4no\I3l0However, there is also a place of joy hidden within this park, on a dusty corner of dry earth behind the public toilets. Here, a group of elderly Japanese men meet every week-day morning, to crouch on battered wooden chairs and play board games. Some, but not all, are Hibakusha, but all of them look relaxed, and laugh loudly as they engage in drawn-out battles of Shogi and Go. They have created their own friendly-yet-private space within this park. As dusk sets in, they pack up their board games and fold up their little chairs and tables to go home. The cicadas grow louder, and a calmness settles over the park as twilight descends. Small clusters of local teenagers gather and relax in the evening’s warmth. Faint sounds of conversation gradually dwindle to nothingness and the day draws to a close, reclaimed by the stillness of night. Our day in the park may be over, but the collective memory of the Hiroshima bombing forever remains.心理学空间'? H)Q_!}%Q



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With gratitude to Professor Bo Jacobs at Hiroshima Peace Institute, and with love to the extraordinary Hibakusha of Hiroshima and their families worldwide.

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感激广岛和平研究所的Bo Jacobs教授,并向非凡的广岛原爆受害者以及遍及全球的他们的家庭致爱。心理学空间Dl4u7Cqk"iYF,_^i

6A qJk'NQY0Becky Alexis-Martin is a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Southampton, with expertise in the cultural and social effects of nuclear defence. She writes on the lives of nuclear test veteran families, and the cultural and social significance of nuclear places and spaces.

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Becky Alexis Martin是南安普敦大学的高级研究员,具有核防御的文化和社会影响方面的专门知识。她写的是核试验老兵家庭的生活,以及核场所和空间的文化和社会意义。心理学空间Z DzriU6VvaI

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