DMM策略发展图
  • Infancy婴儿期 

    The parents mediate the effect of the context upon the infant, including risk to the infant.
    父母调节环境对婴儿的影响,包括对婴儿的风险。

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    婴儿期发展起来的策略:A型组策略

    A+:pre-compulsive
    A+:预强迫

    A1-2: Socially facile/Inhibited
    The A1-2 strategy uses cognitive prediction in the context of very little real threat. Attachment figures are idealized by over-looking their negative qualities (A1) or the self is put down a bit (A2). Most A1-2s are predictable, responsible people who are just cool and businesslike. Type A strategies all rely on inhibition of feelings and set danger at a psychological distance from the self. This strategy is first used in infancy.
    A1-2:社交性随和/抑制
    A1-2策略在具有非常小但真实威胁的环境中使用认知预测。依恋对象被理想化,通过忽视他们的负面品质(A1)或对自我稍加抑制(A2)。大部分A1-2策略的使用者是行为可预见的、负责任的人,冷静有条理。A型策略都依赖于抑制情绪,并在心理上将危险置于一定距离之外。这种策略最初是在婴儿期开始使用的。

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    婴儿期发展起来的策略: B型组策略

    B1-2: Reserved
    Individuals assigned to B1-2 are a bit more inhibited with regard to negative affect than B3s, but are inherently balanced.
    B1-2:保守(矜持)
    使用B1-2策略的个体被认为比使用B3策略的个体更容易受到负面影响,但本质上是平衡的。

    B3:Comfortable
    The Type B strategy involves a balanced integration of temporal prediction with affect. Type B individuals show all kinds of behavior, but are alike in being able to adapt to a wide variety of situations in ways that are self-protective, that protect their children, and that as often as possible cause others no harm. They communicate directly, negotiate differences, and find mutually satisfactory compromises. They distort cognitive and affective information very little, especially not to themselves. Finally, they display a wider range of individual variation than people using other strategies – who must constrain their functioning to employ their strategy. This strategy functions in infancy. By adulthood, two sorts of Type B strategies can be differentiated. Naive B’s simply had the good fortune to grow up in safety and security. Mature B’s, on the other hand, 1) have reached neurological maturity (in the mid-30’s), 2) function in life’s major roles, e.g., child, spouse, parent, and 3) carry out an on-going process of psychological integration across relationships, roles, and contexts. Where naive B’s tend to be simplistic, mature B’s grapple with life’s complexities.
    B3:舒适
    B型策略涉及对认知(时序预测)与情感的平衡整合。 使用B型策略的个体表现出各种各样的行为,但均能够以保护自己及他们的孩子,并且尽可能地使他人不受伤害的方式有效地应对各种各样的情形。他们直接沟通,讨论分歧,并找到双方满意的妥协。他们很少歪曲认知和情感信息,尤其不会歪曲自己。最后,他们比使用其他策略的个体表现出更大范围的个体差异——其他策略的个体需要通过约束自己的能力来运用他们的策略。B型策略从婴儿期开始被运用。到了成年期,可以区分出两类B型策略。天真B型全凭幸运得以生活成长于充足的安全和保障之中。而成熟B型:1)达到了神经成熟(30岁中期),2)在生活中承担了一些主要角色,如孩子,配偶,父母,以及3)持续进行着心理整合过程,涉及关系、角色和环境。天真B型往往趋于简单化,而成熟B型则努力应对生活的复杂性。

    B4-5: Reactive
    Individuals assigned to B4-5 exaggerate negative affect a bit, being sentimental (B4) or irritated (B5), but are inherently balanced.
    B4-5:反应性的
    使用B4-5策略的个体被认为会稍稍夸大负面情感,表现为容易感伤(B4)或易激惹(B5),但本质上是平衡的。

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    婴儿期发展起来的策略:C型组策略

    C1-2: Threatening/Disarming
    The C1-2 (threatening-disarming) strategy involves both relying on one=s own feelings to guide behavior and also using somewhat exaggerated and changing displayed negative affect to influence other people=s behavior. Specifically, the strategy consists of splitting, exaggerating, and alternating the display of mixed negative feelings to attract attention and manipulate the feelings and responses of others. The alternation is between presentation of a strong, angry invulnerable self who blames others for the problem (C1,3,5, 7) with the appearance of a fearful, weak, and vulnerable self who entices others to give succorance (C2,4,6,8). C1-2 is a very normal strategy found in people with low risk for mental health problems and a great zest for life. Infants display the C1-2 strategy.
    C1-2:威胁/消气(使撤防)
    C1-2(威胁/消气)策略不仅依靠自己的情感来引导自己的行为,还通过使用夸张和变化的外显的负性情感来影响他人的行为。具体而言,该策略包括分裂、夸张和交替显示混合的消极情绪,以吸引他人注意和操纵他人的感受和反应。交替发生在呈现一个强大愤怒且无懈可击的自我,将问题归咎于他人(C1、3、5、7)和呈现一个受伤的弱小的的自我,以引诱他人给予救助(C2、4、6、8)之间。C1-2策略常见于具有较低心理健康风险且对生活怀有极大热情的人群中。婴儿会使用C1-2策略。

    C+:pre-coercive
    C+:预胁迫



    Preschool 学前期
    Learning safe forms of self-reliance for short periods of time.
    在短时间内学习安全的自力更生形式。
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    学前期发展起来的策略: A型组策略

    A3-4:compulsively caregiving/compliance
    Individuals using the A3 strategy (compulsive caregiving, cf., Bowlby, 1973) rely on predictable contingencies, inhibit negative affect and protect themselves by protecting their attachment figure. In childhood, they try to cheer up or care for sad, withdrawn, and vulnerable attachment figures. In adulthood, they often find employment where they rescue or care for others, especially those who appear weak and needy. The precursors of A3 and A4 can be seen in infancy (using the DMM method for the Strange Situation), but the strategy only functions fully in the preschool years and thereafter.
    A3-4:强迫性照顾/强迫性顺从
    使用A3策略的个体(强迫性照顾,参见,Bowlby,1973)依赖于可预测的突发事件,通过抑制自己的消极情感和保护依恋对象来保护自己。在童年时代,他们试图使悲伤、孤僻或脆弱的依恋对象振作起来,或对其施以照顾。成年后,他们往往会寻找到那些帮助或照顾他人的工作,特别是会帮助或照顾显得软弱和急需照顾的人的工作。A3-4策略的预策略的使用可以在婴儿期观察到(在陌生情境实验中采用DMM的评估方法),但此两种策略在学龄前期及之后才充分显现。

    A4: Compulsively compliant individuals (Crittenden & DiLalla, 1988) try to prevent danger, inhibit negative affect and protect themselves by doing what attachment figures want them to do, especially angry and threatening figures. They tend to be excessively vigilant, quick to anticipate and meet others’ wishes, and generally agitated and anxious. The anxiety, however, is ignored and downplayed by the individual and often appears as somatic symptoms that are brushed aside as being unimportant.
    A4:采取强迫顺从策略的个体(Crittenden & DiLalla,1988)试图阻止危险,抑制负面情绪,通过做依恋对象,尤其是愤怒情绪和具有威胁性的对象所希望的事来保护自己。他们往往过于警觉,容易预测和满足他人的愿望,通常焦虑不安。然而,这种焦虑被个人忽视和淡化,通常表现为不重要从而被漠然置之的躯体症状。


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    学前期发展起来的策略: C型组策略

    C3-4: (aggressive-feigned helpless)
    The C3-4 strategy involves alternating aggression with apparent helplessness to cause others to comply out of fear of attack or assist out of fear that one cannot care for oneself. Individuals using a C3 (aggressive) strategy emphasize their anger in order to demand caregivers’ compliance. Those using the C4 (feigned helpless) give signals of incompetence and submission. The angry presentation elicits compliance and guilt in others, whereas vulnerability elicits rescue. The precursors of this strategy can be seen in infancy (using the DMM method for the Strange Situation), but the strategy only functions fully in the preschool years and thereafter.
    C3-4:(攻击/假装无助)
    使用C3-4策略的个体,交替使用攻击与假装无助,使其他人由于恐惧而服从或由于担心个体不能照顾好自己而提供帮助。使用C3(攻击)策略的个体会强调他们的愤怒,以要求照顾者的顺从。那些使用C4(假装无助)的个体则发出了无能和屈服的信号。愤怒的表达导致了他人的顺从和内疚,而脆弱的表现则可引发他人的拯救。C3-4策略的预策略的使用可以在婴儿期被观察到(在陌生情境实验中采用DMM的评估方法),但此两种策略在学龄前期及之后几年才充分显现。




    School-age 学龄期
    establishing symmetrical attachments with best friends while concurrently maintaining affiliative peer relationships。
    与最好的朋友建立对等的依恋关系,同时保持其他同伴关系。


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    学龄期发展起来的策略: C型组策略

    C5-6:Punitive/Seductive
    The C5-6 strategy (punitively obsessed with revenge and/or seductively obsessed with rescue) is a more extreme form of C3-4 that involves active deception to carry out the revenge or elicit rescue. Individuals using this strategy distort information substantially, particularly in blaming others for their predicament and heightening their own negative affect; the outcome is a more enduring and less resolvable struggle.
    C5-6:惩罚/诱惑
    C5-6策略(惩罚性地一心复仇和/或诱惑性地痴迷于被拯救),是C3-4的一种更为极端的形式,它涉及到主动积极地欺骗来实施报复或引发救援。使用这种策略的个体会严重歪曲信息,特别是在将自己的困境归罪于他人,并加剧自己的负面情感;结果是一场更持久、更少解决可能的斗争。

    Those using a C5 (punitive) strategy are colder, more distant and self-controlled, and deceptive than people using C3. They appear invulnerable and dismiss other people’s perspectives while forcing others to attend to them while misleading others regarding their inner feeling of helplessness and desire for comfort. Individuals using the C6 (seductive) strategy give the appearance of needing rescue from dangerous circumstances that are, in fact, self-induced. C6 individuals mislead others regarding their anger.
    使用C5(惩罚性)策略的人比使用C3策略的人更冷酷、更疏远,更自我控制,更有欺骗性。他们表现得无懈可击,无视他人的观点,同时强迫他人注意自己,易使人忽视他们内心的无助感和对安慰的渴望。使用C6(诱惑)策略的个体,表现得似乎需要从危险的环境中被拯救出来,事实上,这些情形是自我诱导的。使用C6策略个体易使人忽视他们的愤怒 。

    This alternating pattern is often seen in bully-victim pairs, within gangs, and in violent couples where the hidden half of the pattern is usually forgotten or forgiven – until the presentation reverses. This strategy develops during the school years but does not function fully until adolescence.
    这种交替的模式经常出现在暴力受害者、帮派成员,以及暴力的夫妻中,在这种情况下,通常隐藏的一半模式被遗忘或被原谅,直到他们的陈述发生逆转。这种策略在学龄期开始发展,但直到青春期才能完全发挥作用。


    Adolescence 青春期
    transforming best friend attachments into romantic, reciprocal attachments with a sexual component。
    将最好的朋友关系转变为浪漫的、有性成分的相互依恋。


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    青春期发展起来的策略:A型组策略

    A5: A5 individuals use a compulsively promiscuous strategy (Crittenden, 1995) to avoid genuine intimacy while maintaining human contact and, in some cases, satisfying sexual desires. They show false positive affect, including sexual desire, to little known people, and protect themselves from rejection by engaging with many people superficially and not getting deeply involved with anyone. This strategy develops in adolescence when past intimate relationships have been treacherous and strangers appear to offer the only hope of closeness and sexual satisfaction. It may be displayed in a socially promiscuous manner (that does not involve sexuality) or, in more serious cases, as sexual promiscuity.
    A5:使用A5策略的个体使用一种强制性的滥交策略(Crittenden,1995),以避免真正的亲密,同时保持人际交往,以及在某些时候,满足性欲望。他们对并不相熟的人表现出虚假的积极情感,包括性欲望,并通过与许多人表面上接触、实际却没有深入接触任何人的方式,来保护自己免遭拒绝。这种策略发展于青少年时期,当过去的亲密关系充满危险,陌生人似乎提供了亲密和性满足的唯一希望。它可能以一种社会滥交的方式表现出来(不涉及性),或者在更严重的情况下,表现为性乱交。

    A6: Individuals using a compulsively self-reliant strategy (Bowlby, 1980) do not trust others to be predictable in their demands, find themselves inadequate in meeting the demands or both. They inhibit negative affect and protect themselves by relying on no one other than themselves. This protects the self from others, but at the cost of lost assistance and comfort. Usually this strategy develops in adolescence after individuals have discovered that they cannot regulate the behavior of important, but dangerous or non-protective, caregivers. They withdraw from close relationships as soon as they are old enough to care for themselves. There is a social form of the strategy in which individuals function adaptively in social and work contexts, but are distant when intimacy is expected, and an isolated form in which individuals cannot manage any interpersonal relationship and withdraw as much as possible from others.
    A6:使用A6策略的个体使用一种强制性的自力更生策略(Bowlby,1980),不相信别人对他们的需求的回应是可预测的,或者发现自己在需求方面得不到满足,或者两者兼而有之。他们通过依靠自己而抑制负性情感和自我保护。这保护了自己免受他人伤害,但代价是失去了帮助和安慰。通常这种策略是在青少年发现他们不能调节重要的,但具危险性或非保护性的照顾者的行为后发展起来的。当他们长大到可以照顾自己的时候,他们就会从亲密关系中退出。有一种由该策略形成的社会形式,即个体在社交和工作环境中具有适应性功能,但在亲密关系中则是疏远的,在这种孤立隔离的形式中,个体无法协调处理任何人际关系,因此他尽可能地从关系中撤退。

    Adulthood 成年期
    Establishing (1) symmetrical and reciprocal spousal attachments that foster both partners’ development, (2) the nurturance of children in non-reciprocal, and (3) non-symmetrical attachment relationships in which the adult is the attachment figure.
    建立确立(1)平等互惠的配偶依恋关系,并促进配偶双方的发展,(2)培育孩子的非互惠的依恋关系,(3)非对称的成年间的依恋关系。



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    成年期发展起来的策略:A型组策略

    A7: Delusionally idealizing individuals (Crittenden, 2000) have had repeated experience with severe danger that they cannot predict or control, display brittle false positive affect, and protect themselves by imagining that their powerless or hostile attachment figures will protect them. This is a very desperate strategy of believing falsely in safety when no efforts are likely to reduce the danger (cf., the “hostage syndrome”). Paradoxically, the appearance is rather generally pleasing, giving little hint of the fear and trauma that lie behind the nice exterior until circumstances produce a break in functioning. This pattern only develops in adulthood.
    A7:采用妄想性理想化策略的个体(Crittenden,2000)曾反复地经历过他们无法预测或调控的严重危险,他们表现出脆弱的虚假的积极情感,并试图通过想象他们无力的或怀有敌意的依恋对象为自己提供保护来保护自己。这是一种非常绝望的策略,当处于再多努力也不可能减少危险的时候(参见,“人质综合症”),他们就会假意相信安全。自相矛盾的是,他们的外表通常是令人愉悦的,美好表象下面几乎没有一丝恐惧和创伤的迹象,直到环境造成了功能的中断。这种模式只在成年期才会出现。

    A8: Individuals using an A8 strategy (externally assembled self, Crittenden, 2000) do as others require, have few genuine feelings of their own, and try to protect themselves by absolute reliance on others, usually professionals who replace their absent or endangering attachment figures. Both A7 and A8 are associated with pervasive and sadistic early abuse and neglect.
    A8:使用A8策略的个体(关注外在自我,Crittenden,2000)会按他人的要求行事,几乎没有自己的真实情感,并且试图通过绝对依赖他人来保护自己,通常是那些代替了他们的缺席或有敌意的依恋对象的专业人士。A7和A8都普遍与具有虐待性的早期虐待和忽视有关。

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    成年期发展起来的策略: C型组策略

    C7-8: C7-8 (menacing-paranoid) is the most extreme of the Type C strategies and involves a willingness to attack anyone combined with fear of everyone. Type C strategies all involve distrust of consequences and an excessive reliance on one=s own feelings. At the extreme, this pattern becomes delusional with delusions of infinite revenge over ubiquitous enemies (a menacing strategy, C7) or the reverse, paranoia regarding the enemies (C8). These two strategies do not become organized before early adulthood.
    C7-8:C7-8(威胁偏执)是C型策略中最极端的,它包含了对所有人的攻击意图及对每个人和恐惧。 C类策略均包含对后果的不信任,以及过分依赖自己的感受。 在极端情况下,这种模式变成妄想,即对无处不在的敌人无限复仇的妄想(一种威胁性策略,C7)或与之相反的对敌人偏执狂式的妄想(C8)。 这两种策略的组织在成年早期之前不会形成。

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    成年期发展起来的策略:A/C及AC策略

    A/C: A/C strategies combine any subpatterns. In practice, most A/C’s consist of the more distorted patterns, i.e., A3-4 or higher and C3-4 or higher. Individuals using these strategies display either very sudden shifts in behavior or, in the case of blended strategies (AC), they show very subtle mixing of distortion and deception. The extreme of the blended form of AC is psychopathy.
    A / C:A / C策略是A、C策略中的任一种子模式的组合。 实际上,大多数A / C策略包含了更为扭曲的模式,如A3-4或更高和C3-4或更高。使用这些策略的个体显示出非常突然地行为变化,或者在混合策略(AC)的情况下,他们显示出非常微妙的扭曲和欺骗的混合。 AC混合形式的极端就是精神变态。

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    Aging 老年期
    Attachments in later life when the adult is becoming less physically and mentally competent and in need of protection once again.
    晚年生活中的依恋,发生在成人在身体和精神上的能力变得越来越弱,需要再次被保护时。


    本篇内容由DMM翻译组周薇、曹萌韵翻译审校

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