• Institute 研究所

    The Family Relations Institute applies the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM) to service delivery, including assessment, psychotherapy, early intervention, social work, the health services, and the courts.

    The conceptual approach is a dynamic-maturational perspective on change and continuity in developmental pathways, particularly those that are associated with risk for dysfunction or psychopathology.

    Overview 概述

    The DMM began under Mary Ainsworth’s guidance, with input from John Bowlby and E. Mavis Hetherington. That is, the roots of the DMM are in psychoanalytic theory, general systems theory, family systems theory, cognitive psychology – and clinical practice.
    DMM模型在Mary Ainswoth的指引下开始建立,同时吸收了John Bowlby和E. Mavis Hetherington的见解。也即,DMM模型扎根于精神分析理论、一般系统理论、家庭系统理论、认知心理学及临床实践。

    Under Ainsworth’s leadership, attachment gained both empirical data and conceptual breadth. At Johns Hopkins University, Ainsworth carried out her seminal study on quality of attachment (that yielded the ABC patterns). At the University of Virginia (where Patricia Crittenden earned her doctorate under Ainsworth’s mentorship), attachment became embedded in Bronfenbrenner’s social ecology theory. From the beginning, Ainsworth encouraged careful observation and expansion of assessment methods and theory.
    在Ainsworth的领导下,依恋理论不单获得了实证数据,在概念广度上也进一步得到拓展。在约翰霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University),Ainsworth对依恋的品质进行了开创性研究(并产生了ABC模式分型)。在弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)(Patricia Crittenden在此于Ainsworth的指导下获得博士学位),依恋理论被植入到Bronfenbrenner的社会生态学理论中。从一开始,Ainsworth便鼓励仔细观察,以及评估方法与理论的扩展。

    The CARE-Index, with its compulsive patterns and two forms of insensitivity (controlling and unresponsive), was Crittenden’s masters’ thesis (1980). The A/C pattern was her dissertation (1983). Attachment theory was broadening to encompass family functioning and community contexts. Crittenden’s first family attachment study was undertaken at UVA with the support of Hetherington.
    《关爱指数(The CARE-Index),及其强迫型和两种不敏感类型(控制型和无反应性)》,是Crittenden的硕士毕业论文(1980)。《A/C模式》是她的专题论文(1983)。依恋理论进一步拓展到了包含家庭功能和社区环境的范畴。Crittenden的第一个家庭依恋研究在弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)进行,并得到了Hetherington的支持。

    By the time Crittenden left UVA, she considered attachment as one part of a hierarchy of systems theory from intrapersonal to interpersonal to cultural. While Crittenden was at the University of Miami, she and Ainsworth modified the Strange Situation to create the PAA to better fit ‘at risk’ preschoolers’ behavior. Attachment was expanding beyond infancy and taking on the complexity of adult human behavior.
    在Crittenden离开弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)时,她将依恋看做是涉及从个体内在到人际间、再到群体文化的整个范畴的系统理论层次的一个组成部分。在迈阿密大学,Crittenden和Ainsworth改进了陌生情境实验,创造发展出PAA(The Preschool Assessment of Attachment,学前期依恋评估),这一评估方法更适合具有“风险”的学龄前儿童的行为。依恋类型研究由此扩展到了婴儿期之后,并涉及到对成人行为复杂性影响的范畴。

    In 1992, Crittenden established the Family Relations Institute (FRI). FRI has brought the DMM to Europe, Australia, and Latin America, making it a more clinical and culturally sensitive theory. The process of developing assessment of attachment has continued with the assistance of many colleagues from many countries and cultures, creating the current life-span array of assessments.

    The primary activities of FRI are:研究所的主要活动:
    • Courses in attachment theory
    • Creation and testing of developmentally and culturally sensitive DMM assessments of attachment
    • Training in the application of DMM assessments (in several languages and in a variety of cultures)
    • Research
    • Coding for others’ research

    The Family Relations Institute trains and authorizes DMM assessments trainers, and certifies coders’ competence for research and treatment applications.